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“Daily Current Affairs – 19/09/2017 & 20/09/2017”

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International News:-

1. Tunisia lifts ban on Muslim women marrying non-Muslims:-

  • The Tunisian government has lifted a ban on Muslim women marrying non-Muslims on the recommendation of the president, who says Tunisia needs to modernise.
  • Muslim men were allowed to marry non-Muslim women, but not the other way around.
    A government official said such marriages can now be freely registered.

2. India Ranks 128th In Meeting UN’s 2030 Health Target:-

  • India ranks 128th in terms of meeting the UN’s health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030, with low scores on air pollution, sanitation, hepatitis B and child wasting, according to a global health review published in The Lancet.
  • The Global Burden of Disease study provides new estimates on where the world currently stands in terms of meeting health goals.
  • Singapore, Iceland and Sweden were the highest performing countries in terms of the overall health- related SDGs.
  • Somalia, Central African Republic, and Afghanistan ranked lowest.

3. Japan releases postage stamps on Indian yoga experts:-

  • Acknowledging the role played by yoga legend Bishnu Charan Ghosh and his family members in spreading Indian postural yoga in Japan, the Japanese postal department has released postage stamps on four of Bengal’s famous exponents of the ancient Indian practice.
  • The stamps on Bishnu Charan Ghosh, his son Biswanath Ghosh, daughter Karuna Ghosh and Karuna’s father in law Asutosh Ghosh, that were released recently in Japan, were official showcased here by the Japanese Consul General in Kolkata, Masayuki Taga.

National News:-

1. Scheme to provide meal to labourers launched in C’garh:-

  • Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh launched ‘Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shram Anna Sahayata Yojna’ under which nutritious meal for Rs 5 will be provided to labourers in the state.
  • Under the scheme, first Shram Anna Sahayata centre was inaugurated in Telibandha area where around 1,000 labourers will be served meal daily between 8 am to 10 am.
  • The centre has been constructed at a cost of Rs 20 lakh.
  • Meanwhile, a skill development centre set up in the same premises was also dedicated by the chief minister on the occasion.
  • Girls and women from the families engaged in rag picking will be given skill development training in varied disciplines including stitching, cooking and others there.

2. Amit Shah launches ‘Shaheed Gram Vikas Yojana’ in Jharkhand:-

  • BJP president Amit Shah launched the ‘Shaheed Gram Vikas Yojana’ during a programme at Ulihatu in Khunti district of Jharkhand.
  • Ulihatu is the birthplace of Jharkhand’s tribal icon Birsa Munda.
  • The programme launched by Shah would provide 136 pucca houses to the dwellers of Ulihatu and a couple of other hamlets around it.

3. Maharashtra to be the first state to have DNA databank in India:-

  • A major IT firm along with Maharashtra Forensic Science Laboratory (FSL) is building a tool for storage of DNA profile of criminals to help police investigations dealing serious crimes against women and children.
  • Maharashtra will be the first Indian state to start DNA database which will also help law enforcement agencies in tracking maoists as well as terrorists besides repeat offenders.
  • Almost all developed countries including the USA, Canada, Australia, UK, NZ as well as majority of the European countries have DNA database.

4. Bandhan Tod: An Android app to fight child marriage in Bihar:-

  • In a unique initiative, Gender Alliance Bihar, a collective effort of over 270 civil society organisations backed by the UN Population Fund, has come up with a mobile application to fight the rampant social evil of child marriage in the state.
  • Launched by Deputy Chief Minister Sushil Kumar Modi, the ‘Bandhan Tod’ app will try to create awareness on resisting child marriage and will also provide round-the-clock help to adolescent girls saying no to the practice in the form of an SOS button.
  • The Gender Alliance is an initiative of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and was started to bring together civil societies, activists, academicians, researchers, media, and others on a common platform to advocate gender equality.
  • Bandhan Tod is part of Gender Alliance’s strategy to support the state government’s efforts to end child marriage and dowry.

5. National Conference on ‘Mission Mode to address Under-Nutrition’:-

  • The Ministry of Women and Child Development will hold the first ever National Conference in New Delhi tomorrow on Mission Mode to address Under-Nutrition in the country.
  • Secretary WCD, Shri Rakesh Srivastava said that this conference is being organized by the Ministry of Women & Child Development in collaboration with Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation and Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, keeping in mind the goal of “Malnutrition Free India-2022”.

6. Tripura is first state to set up district family welfare committees:-

  • Tripura has became the first state in the country to set up family welfare district committees to deal with the issue of fake and biased complaints by women against their husbands, in-laws and husband’s relatives.
  • State Governor Tathagata Roy in the presence of Chief Minister Manik Sarkar and other high dignitaries formally launched the family welfare committees in all eight districts in Tripura at a function in Tripura High Court.
  • Tripura is the first state to have formed such committees, Tripura High Court Chief Justice T. Vaiphei said.

7. International Yoga Festival starts in Kashmir:-

  • Jammu and Kashmir governor N N Vohra inaugurated the second International Yoga Festival and International Yoga Sports Championship 2017 in which about 300 people from across the world are participating.
  • The festival is being organized by the Yoga Society of Kashmir at the Sher-i-Kashmir International Conference Centre.
  • About 300 participants from various parts of India, Vietnam, Taiwan, Canada, Bulgaria, USA and Nepal are participating in the festival.

Economic News:-

1. India likely to be 3rd largest economy by 2028: HSBC report:-

  • India is likely to overtake Japan and Germany to become the third largest economy in the next 10 years but needs to be consistent in reforms and focus more on the social sector, British brokerage HSBC.
  • Social capital is insufficient in the country and spending on aspects like health and education is not just desirable for its own sake, but is also central to economic growth and political stability.
  • India also needs a lot of focus on ease of doing business and related aspects like contract enforcements.

“Current Affairs Editorial – The Emerging India Japan Alignment and its ability to reorder the Asian strategic landscape”

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The Emerging India Japan Alignment and its ability to reorder the Asian strategic landscape

Paper II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora, Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

Context:

• If you look at the world from a geostrategic perspective, there are trend lines of slow-moving geopolitical changes which come together at a particular moment in time resulting in an inflexion point.
• And many signs suggest that 2017 may well be the year which marked the re ordering of the Asian strategic landscape.
• In this context, one must look at the emerging India-Japan alignment and its potential to sets the stage for the reordering of the Asian strategic landscape.

The Two slow moving Trends now visible:

• The two slow moving trend lines clearly discernible since the Cold War ended a quarter century ago are:
• The shift of the geopolitical centre of gravity from the Euro-Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region.
• The Rise of China.

The Belated recognition of the trends by the U.S.A.:

• The U.S. ‘re balancing’ announced in 2011 was a belated recognition of the above changes.
• The impact of the Sub Prime Mortgage Loan crisis in 2008 hastened the process and drove home the message.

The new center of gravity called the Indo Pacific:

• Most of the rivalries are being played out in the crowded geopolitical space of the Indo-Pacific.
• Asian economies now account for more than half of global GDP and becoming larger in coming years.

A Rising China abiding by the Two Guides Policy:

• China’s rise is reflected in a more assertive China.
• President Xi Jinping’s announced the two guides’ policy in February 2017.
• According to the Two Guides Policy China should guide ‘the shaping of the new world order’ and safeguarding ‘international security’.

China’s eagerness to assume leadership:

• During the last quarter century Deng Xiaoping advised China ‘to observe calmly, secure its position, hide its capability, bide its time and not claim leadership’ since it suited the Chinese back then in the 20th century.
• Much water has flown under the bridge and the times have clearly changed for China.
• Today’s China is not just willing but eager to assume leadership and expects other countries to yield space.

The New Great Power Relations Followed by China:

• China has suggested ‘a new type of great power relations’ to the U.S.
• China’s assertiveness in the East China Sea with Japan and in the South China Sea with its Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) neighbours sends signals of the above mentioned Great Power Relationship.

Multipolarity across the world and Chinese Dominance in Asia:

• The message that while multipolarity may be desirable in a global order, in Asia, China is the predominant power and must be treated as such is loud and clear.
• Until now, China has been one of the beneficiaries of the U.S.-led global order.

China’s impatience and the creation of an Alternative Financial Mechanism:

• It is impatient that it does not enjoy a position that it feels it deserves, especially in the Bretton Woods institutions.
• During the last five years, China has set about creating a new set of institutions (the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the New Development Bank) and launched the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

Aiming to create a new trading infrastructure:

• China aims to create a new trading infrastructure that reflects China’s centrality as the largest trading nation.
Chinese Assertions in the Indian Ocean:
• The BRI is also complemented by a growing Chinese naval presence in the Indian Ocean.
• In 2009, the PLA Navy started rotating three ship task forces through the Indian Ocean as part of the anti-piracy task force off the Somalia coast.
• Visits by nuclear attack submarines to littoral ports began to take place.

The Full Fledged Military Base at Djibouti:

• In addition, China is now converting the supply facility at Djibouti into a full-fledged military base.
Events accelerating the ascent of China recently.
• Recent developments have accelerated these geopolitical trends.
• The first was the outcome of the U.S. elections last year.

Donald Trump’s America first and absolving responsibility in the Western Pacific:

• By invoking ‘America first’ repeatedly, President Donald Trump has made it clear that the U.S. considers the burden of leading the global order too onerous.
• American allies, particularly in the Asia-Pacific, are nervous about Mr. Trump’s harangues that they are enjoying the benefits of the U.S. security umbrella on the cheap.

The growing anxiety of South Korea and Japan and their waning confidence on America:

• Recent nuclear and long-range missile tests by North Korea have added to South Korean and Japanese anxieties.
• Japan has been particularly rattled by the two missiles fired across Hokkaido.
• The U.S’s push for more sanctions that depend on China for implementation, is been seen by most Japanese that it is unlikely to be dismantle North Korea’s nuclear and missile capability any time soon.

China playing by their rule book in Doklam:

• The Doklam stand-off between India and China that lasted from June to August 2017.
• The Chinese playbook followed the established pattern creating a physical presence followed by sharpened rhetoric, together becoming an exercise in coercive diplomacy.
• This worked in pushing the nine-dash line in the South China Sea with the Philippines and Vietnam even as China built additional facilities on reclaimed land in the area.
• India, however, chose to block China and a few hundred soldiers on the plateau maintained their hostile postures.

The differences between India and China:

• Differences with China did not begin with Doklam.
• It was preceded by the stapled visa issue for Indians belonging to Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir.
• Growing incidents of incursions along the disputed boundary.

Protecting Pakistan and Frustrating India:

• Blocking of India’s bid to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group last year.
• Ensuring that no language relating to Pakistan-based terrorist groups found mention in the BRICS summit in Goa.
• And preventing the inclusion of Masood Azhar from being designated as a terrorist by the UN Security Council.

India’s consistent policy on China since 1988:

• Since 1988, India has followed a consistent China policy based on putting aside the boundary dispute and developing other aspects of the relationship in the expectation that this would create mutual trust and enable a boundary settlement.

The Growing Gap between India and China and the futility of a shared future:

• However, the gap between India and China has grown, both in economic and military terms, and with it has emerged a more assertive China.
• The shared vision of an Asian century with a rising India and rising China is long past.
• After Doklam, there is finally a consensus that the old China policy does not serve our national interests and a review is long overdue.

The India – Japan Angle and the scope for a new relationship adding critical dimension:

• It is against this backdrop that Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe’s visit to India took place last week.
• The contours of a new relationship were defined during Mr. Abe’s earlier tenure, in 2006-07, when annual summits were introduced; the relationship became a ‘Special Strategic and Global Partnership’.

Growing synergy from Naval exercises and peaceful use of Nuclear Energy:

• Japan was invited to join in the Malabar naval exercises and a Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation was concluded.
• A singular achievement was the conclusion of the agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy last year.

Deepening strategic dialogue:

• To deepen strategic understanding, the two sides initiated a 2+2 Dialogue involving the Foreign and Defence Ministries in 2010.
• A memorandum on enhancing defence and technology/security cooperation was signed and talks on acquiring the amphibious maritime surveillance ShinMaywa US-2i began in 2013.

The India, China, U.S.A. trilateral dialogue:

• Trilateral dialogue involving both the U.S. and Japan and covering strategic issues was elevated to ministerial level in 2014.
• Once the agreement for the 12 US-2i aircraft is concluded with a follow-up acquisition as part of Make in India, the strategic relationship will begin to acquire critical mass.

Languishing India Japan Trade ties:

• Today, India-Japan trade languishes at around $15 billion, a quarter of trade with China while Japan-China trade is around $300 billion.
• Therefore, the primary focus during the recent visit has been on economic aspects.
• The Mumbai-Ahmedabad high speed rail corridor is more than symbolism, in demonstrating that high-cost Japanese technology is viable in developing countries and that India has the absorption capacity to master it.

Far Bigger challenge than completion: Transferring the know how:

• Completing it in five years is a management challenge but the bigger challenge will be to transfer the know-how of best practices to other sectors of the economy.

One more major initiative: The Asia – Africa growth corridor:

• Another major initiative is the recently launched Asia-Africa Growth Corridor to build connectivity for which Japan has committed $30 billion and India $10 billion.
• This adds a critical dimension to the ‘global partnership’ between the two countries.

The way ahead for India to benefit from the synergy with Japan:

• However, to make this productive, India needs to change its style of implementing projects abroad, most of which have been plagued by cost and time over-runs.
• Ensuring effective implementation and setting up mechanisms for delivery will align Mr. Modi’s Act East policy with Mr. Abe’s Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy.
• This alignment sets the stage for the reordering of the Asian strategic landscape.

“Current Affairs Pulse – 18/09/2017”

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1. Which of the following statements about the Sardar Sarovar Dam Project are correct:
a. The foundation for the project was laid by the first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in the year 1961.
b. The Sardar Sarovar dam was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on September 17, 2017.
c. It took 56 years since the launch of the project by Jawahar Lal Nehru for the completion of the behemoth of a project, with inter state disputes and environmental and rehabilitation issues posing hurdles.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 1and 11 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

2. Which of the following statements about the Sardar Sarovar Dam Project are correct:
a. It is the second biggest concrete gravity dam by volume after the Grand Coulee Dam in the U.S. and has the world’s third largest spillway discharging capacity.
b. It is the third highest concrete dam in India.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 11 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

3. Which of the following statements about the Narmada Bachao Andolan are correct:
a. It is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the number of large dams being built across the Narmada River.
b. The Narmada Bachao Andolan was led by social activist Anna Hazare.
c. The Narmada Bachao Andolan opposed the Sardar Sarovar dam on the ground that it displaced thousands of families in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra where thousands of hectares of forest land was submerged.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)1 and 3 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)None of the above
Answer: 2
Refer Page No 11 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

4. Which of the following statements about Greenpeace are correct:
a. Greenpeace started in 1971 with a small group of volunteers protest against US militarism and the testing of nuclear weapons.
b. The core values of Greenpeace include non-violence, bearing witness, personal action, internationalism and independence.
c. The Greenpeace does not accept funding from governments or corporations.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)All of the above
d)1 and 3 only
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 11 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017 and the website of Greenpeace.

5. Which of the following statements about the end to end digitization of the Public Distribution System are correct:
a. The project was launched in 2012 at a cost of ₹884 crore to ensure that, at every step from field to fork, the government would be able to track the movement of food grains so that they reached the right beneficiaries.
b. The project also calls for automation of the supply chain – online monitoring of stock positions in godowns, tracking the movement of the food grains from the godowns to the fair price shops, SMS alerts to beneficiaries, etc.
c. The North Eastern States cited connectivity issues for their inability to commence the process of digitization.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 11 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017 and the website of Greenpeace.

6. Which of the following statements about Hamas are correct:
a. It is a Palestinian Sunni -Islamic fundamentalist organization founded in the year 1987.
b. It is regarded, either in whole or in part, as a terrorist organization by several countries and international organizations, most notably by Israel, the United States.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017 and any standard World History text book.

7. Which of the following statements about Fatah are correct:
a. It is a Palestinian nationalist political party founded by Yasser Arafat in 1959.
b. Fatah for now continues to run a de facto separate administration in the Gaza strip and is in charge of the security forces there.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 1
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017 and any standard World History text book.

8. Which of the following statements about the Human Rights Watch are correct:
a. Human Rights Watch is an independent, international organization, established in the year 1978, which works as part of a vibrant movement to uphold human dignity and advance the cause of human rights for all.
b. Human Rights Watch do not embrace political causes, are non-partisan, and maintain neutrality in armed conflict.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017 and the official website of Human Rights Watch.

9. Which of the following statements about Turkey are correct:
a. It is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, with one portion mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia and a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.
b. Turkey is not bordered by eight countries.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 1
Refer any standard Atlas.

10. Which of the following statements about Mustafa Kemal Ataturk are correct:
a. He is the founder of the Turkish Republic.
b. It was the progressive Mustafa Kemal Ataturk who instituted the separation of state and religion in Turkey.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017

11. Which of the statements about South Korea are correct:
a. South Korea is not among the world’s leading producers or exporters of gold and related items.
b. A recent sudden surge in imports of gold and related articles is reported from South Korea though.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 13 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017

12. Which of the following statements regarding Shell Companies in India are correct:
a. Shell companies are typically corporate entities which do not have any active business operations or significant assets in their possession.
b. As per Section 455 of the Companies Act, 2013, a company that does not have significant financial activity or has been inactive can apply to the Registrar of Companies and obtain the status of a shell company.
c. The Companies Act, 2013 has not defined what a ‘shell company’ is and as to what kind of activities would lead to a company being termed a ‘shell’.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)1 and 3 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 2
Refer Page No 14 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

13. Which of the following statements regarding Gold imports into India are correct:
a. India is the world’s second-biggest gold consumer after China.
b. The imports are expected to increase on account of the forthcoming festival season, which will start from the end of September 2017.
c. Gold imports, which has a bearing on the country’s current account deficit (CAD) and a surge in gold imports will lead to widening of Trade Deficit.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 14 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

14. Which of the following statements about Birsa Munda are correct:
a. Birsa Munda was an Indian tribal, freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero of the 19th century who belonged to the Munda tribe.
b. He spearheaded an Indian indigenous tribal religious millenarian movement that arose in the tribal belt of modern-day Bihar and Jharkhand.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 10 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017 and Refer any standard history text book.

15. Which of the following statements about Sulabh International Social Service Organization are correct:
a. It is a non-profit voluntary social organization founded in 1970 by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak dedicated to the Gandhian ideology of emancipation of scavengers.
b. Sulabh has been working for the removal of untouchability and social discrimination against human scavengers.
c. Sulabh is noted for achieving success in the field of cost-effective sanitation, liberation of scavengers, social transformation of society.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 10 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017

16. Which of the following statements regarding India’s stand on North Korea are correct:
a. India joined Japan in describing North Korea as a common threat in the India – Japan joint statement asking North Korea to roll back its nuclear programmes.
b. India played a key role in the resolution of the Korean war during the early 1950s and has maintained diplomatic ties with Pyongyang.
c. The United States of America has insisted that India reduce ties with North Korea.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 10 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

17. Which of the following statements about the Marshal of the Indian Air force Arjan Singh are correct:
a. He was the first four-star general of the Air Force and its only five-star general in its history.
b. He was part of the Burma campaign in the World War II as well as the 1965 India Pakistan War.

Options:
a)1 only
b02 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 7 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

18. Which of the following statements about the Bandipur National Park area correct:
a. It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere reserve.
b. It is a national park located in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 1
Refer Page No 6 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

19. Which of the following statements about Cognitive Behavioral Therapy are correct:
a. It involves stimulating the brain with magnetic fields which can help people overcome anxiety disorder and irrational phobias such as fear of heights or spiders.
b. As part of the study, scientists stimulated the frontal lobe of some of the anxiety patients for about 20 minutes and the findings demonstrate that all participants benefit from the therapy.
c. The study found that a specific region in the frontal lobe of the human brain is important for unlearning anxiety.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)1 and 3 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 6 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

20. Which of the following statements about Thirdhand Smoke are correct:
a. Thirdhand-smoke results when exhaled smoke and smoke emanating from the tip of burning cigarettes gets on surfaces such as clothing, hair, homes, and cars.
b. Exposure to thirdhandsmoke (THS) can significantly harm your liver and brain tissues within a month with the effect worsening over time.
c. Researchers investigated the effects of THS exposure on biological molecular markers or biomarkers found in serum and in liver and brain tissues and found that thirdhandsmoke affects them adversely.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 18 of The Hindu Dated September 18, 2017.

“Current Affairs Pulse – 17/09/2017”

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1. Which of the following statements about Dover are correct:
a. The Strait of Dover separates Great Britain from continental Europe.
b. The Strait is located at the narrowest part of English channel and marks the boundary between English Channel and North Sea.
c. The Port Of Dover, located in South Eastern England, is the nearest English Port to France.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 1 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

2. Which of the following statements regarding River Cauvery are correct:
a. Cauvery river basin covers only Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Puducherry.
b. River Kabini, originating from the Wayanad District in Kerala, is a right hand tributary of Cauvery.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer any standard Geography Text Book.

3. Which of the following statements about M – Sand or Manufactured Sand are correct:
a. It is produced from hard granite stone by crushing.
b. It is a substitute of river sand for concrete construction.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 2 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

4. Which of the following statements about Keezhadi are correct:
a. An Archaeological Survey of India excavation in Keezhadi revealed a Sangam era settlement dated to the 2nd century BCE by radiocarbon dating.
b. The Roman artifacts found at the site located near Madurai add to the evidence of ancient trade relations between the Romans and the Pandya kingdom.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 8 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

5. Which of the following statements about the Indus Water Treaty are correct:
a. The Indus Waters Treaty was signed in 1960 after nine years of negotiations between India and Pakistan with the help of the World Bank.
b. The World Bank is not a signatory to the Indus Water Treaty.
c. The World Bank’s role in relation to the differences and disputes is limited to the designation of people to fulfil certain roles when requested by either or both of the parties.

Options:
a)1and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)None of the Above
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

6. Which of the following statements about Kishenganga and Ratle Hydro Electric Plants are correct:
a. It is part of the run-of-the-river hydroelectric scheme that is designed to divert water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Chenab River basin.
b. The Ratle Hydroelectric Plant is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station currently under construction on the Jhelum River.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

7. Which of the following statements regarding the Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement between India and Europe are correct:
a. The European Union is concerned over what it called India’s unilateral termination of separate Bilateral Investment Treaties with a significant number of European Union countries.
b. The FTA talks are also stuck due to differences over the EU’s demands on elimination of India’s duties on goods such as automobiles and wines and spirits.
c. India is pitching for a data secure status which is important for India’s IT sector to do more business with EU firms as well as to ease norms on temporary movement of skilled workers.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

8. Which of the following statements about Buland Darwaza are correct:
a. It was built in 1601 A.D. by Akbar the great to commemorate his victory over Gujarat.
b. It incorporates almost all the essential features of Akbar’s architectural traditions: red sandstone, stone carvings, relief by inserting white marble, etc.
c. The construction of the Buland Darwaza was inspired by Timurid architecture.
d. Its surface is covered by marble slabs inscribed with Quranic verses promising paradise to true believers, appropriate for the entrance into a khanqah.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

9. Which of the following statements about the recent study on Tattoes published in Scientific Reports are correct:
a. Nanoparticles from permanent skin tattoos can migrate passively via blood and lymph fluids.
b. Long term deposition can also lead to cutaneous inflammation and granuloma.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 17 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

10. Which of the following statements regarding the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 are correct:
a. Cardiovascular disease was the leading killer in India in 2016.
b. In India and world over lifestyle diseases have increased while deaths due to curable diseases have come down because of better medical care.
c. Overall, the findings show that the world is becoming healthier but the progress is uneven and People are living longer but with more diseases.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 17 of The Hindu Dated September 17, 2017.

“Current Affairs Pulse – 16/09/2017”

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1. Which of the following statements about the North Eastern States are in correct:
a. The Indian state of Assam shares its border with Bangladesh.
b. The Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh shares its border with Myanmar.
c. The Indian state of Mizoram shares its borders with both Myanmar and Bangladesh.
d. The Indian state of Tripura shares its borders only with Myanmar.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 4 only
c)1, 2 and 3 only
d)4 only
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 1 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017 and any standard Geography Text book.

2. Which of the following statements about BSF – Border Security Forces is correct:
a. It is one of the five Central Armed Police Forces of the Union of India.
b. It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
c. The Border Security Forces guard only the Indo Bangladesh Border.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)1 and 3 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 1 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

3. What is an Improved Explosive Device:
a. It is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
b. It is generally used in asymmetric unconventional warfare.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 1 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

4. Which of the following statements about the Madras High Court are correct:
a. It was formed as a consequence of the Indian High Courts Act of 1861 which authorized the Crown to create High Courts in the Indian colony.
b. The heritage building, where the Madras High Court is functioning, is constructed in the Hindu Saracenic style.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 1 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

5. Name the engineer who is still remembered by many people of the Tamil Nadu State for changing the course of the Periyar and constructing the Mullaperiyar dam in the 1880s:
a)Colonel John Pennycuick
b)M. Visveswaraya
c) Colonel John Munro
d)Colonel Colin Macaulay.
Answer: 1
Refer Page No 4 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

6. Which of the following statements about The Golden Chariot are correct:
a. It is a joint venture between the Karnataka government and the Railway Ministry.
b. The Golden Chariot is the only luxury train of South India.

Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 8 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

7. Which of the following statements about the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary are correct:
a. The Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary is an integral part of the Nilgiri Biosphere reserve.
b. The protected area network of Nagarhole and Bandipur of Karnataka is located to the North East of Wayanad Wildlife sanctuary.
c. The Mudumalai National Park is located to the South East of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary.

Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)All of the above
c)2 and 3 only
d)1 and 3 only
Answer: 2
Refer Page No 8 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017 and Refer any standard Atlas.

8. Which of the following statements regarding the Recurving Cyclones phenomenon in Western Pacific are correct:
a. During normal monsoon years, cyclones in the Western Pacific move westwards towards India and aid rain-bearing systems over the sub-continent. during
b. During some years the cyclones recurve, or start to swing north-east, and do not give as much of a push to the rains as they do in the good monsoon years.
c. This recurving of the cyclones in the Western Pacific ocean frequently happens during the El Nino years but can inexplicably occur when an El nino hasn’t yet taken shape.

Options:
a)All of the above
b)1 and 2 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)1 and 3 only
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 10 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

9. Which of the following statements about Self Respect Movement are in correct:
a. It was founded in 1925 by E. V. Ramasamy, also called as Periyar, in Tamil Nadu.
b. The movement aimed to achieve a society where backward castes have equal human rights, and encouraged backward castes to have self-respect in the context of a caste-based society.
c. Equality with stress on economic and social equality was not the central theme of the Self-Respect Movement.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)All of the above
c)3 only
d)None of the above
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 1 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017 and refer any standard Indian History Text Book.

10. Which of the following statements about India Japan ties are correct:
a. Japan is India’s largest donor and the third largest provider of Foreign Direct Investment.
b. The decision to finalize four new locations for special Japanese Industrial Townships is expected to boost the bilateral trade which has been steadily declining since 2013.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 10 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

11. What is the One Belt One Road initiative of China:
a. The One Belt refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt which comprises three overland routes: connecting China, Central Asia, Russia and Europe.
b. The One Road refers to the 21st century Maritime Silk Road designed to push trade from China’s coast to Europe.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 10 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

12. Which of the following statements about One Belt component of China’s One Belt One Road policy are correct:
a. One component of the policy aims to link China with the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea through Central Asia and West Asia.
b. The policy does not aim to connect China with Southeast Asia, South Asia and the Indian Ocean as part of the One Belt component.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 1
Refer the Belt and Road Initiatives official website

13. Which of the following statements about One Road component of China’s One Belt One Road policy are correct:
a. One component of the One Road policy is aimed to push trade from China to Europe through the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean in one route.
b. The another component of the One Road policy is aimed to push trade from China’s coast through the South China Sea to the South Pacific.
c. India is the only South-Asian country not to be involved in the One Belt One Road policy of China.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)1 and 3 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 10 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017 and the official website of the Belt and Road Project

14. Which of the following statements about the town of Moreh are correct:
a. It is a border town located on the India – Myanmar border in the state of Manipur.
b. It is also a rapidly developing trade point in India on the border with Myanmar, with the city of Tamu on the other side of the border.
c. The Indo-Myanmar Friendship Bridge is located in Moreh.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)1 and 3 only
c)All of the above
d)2 and 3 only
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 1 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

15. Which of the following are not Muslim majority countries:
a. Turkey
b. Indonesia
c. Malaysia
d. Bangladesh
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)None of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 11 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

16. Which of the following statements about the Organization of Islamic Conference/ Cooperation are correct:
a. Established in the year 1969, it is the collective voice of the Muslim world and ensures to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world.
b. Headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, the organization works with the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.
c. Despite having a significant Muslim population, India is neither a member nor an observer in the Organization of Islamic Conference.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)All of the above
c)2 and 3 only
d)1 and 3 only
Answer: 2
Refer Page No 12 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017 and the official website of the Organization of Islamic Conference.

17. What are the five contentious proposals in the Code on Industrial Relations Bill:
a. Allowing bigger companies to retrench workers without the government’s permission.
b. Increasing the severance pay by three times.
c. Restricting outsiders’ role in trade union leadership.
d. Changing the definition of workers and the recognition of trade unions.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)4 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 16 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

18. Which of the following statements regarding the Code on Industrial Relations Bill are correct:
a. The proposed Bill will combine the Trade Unions Act, 1926, the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, and the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, into a single code.
b. Under the code the states can allow larger firms to retrench workers without seeking its permission by bringing their own amendments to the Industrial Dispute Act.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 16 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

19. Which of the following statements about the National Institutional Ranking Framework are correct:
a. It was launched in the year 2015 to rank higher educational institutions in India.
b. The rankings are based on objective criteria to promote competitive excellence in higher educational institutions.
c. The National Institutional Ranking Framework’s India Ranking initiative is not under the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)None of the above
Answer: 2
Refer Page No 17 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

20. Which of the following statements regarding Malaria are correct:
a. Releasing the mosquito larvae eating Gambusia fish into wells, ponds and large pools of water can help prevent Malaria.
b. Malaria is tackled in India by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 18 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

21. Which of the following statements about NASA’s Cassini Spacecraft’s death plunge into Saturn are correct:
a. Cassini, an international project that cost $3.9 billion and included scientists from 27 nations launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida in 1997.
b. During its lifetime it discovered six more moons around Saturn, three dimensional structures towering above Saturn’s rings, a giant storm that raged across the planet for nearly a year, icy geysers erupting from Enceladus and and eerie hydrocarbon lake on Saturn’s largest moon.
c. The well planned demise of Cassini Spacecraft was a way to prevent any damage to Saturn’s ocean bearing moons Titan and Enceladus.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)2 and 3 only
c)1 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 4
Refer Page No 24 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

22. Which of the following statements regarding ATAGS are correct:
a. The advanced towed artillery gun system (ATAGS) is being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation without any involvement of the private sector.
b. ATAGS registered the longest ever distance of 48.074 km, surpassing the maximum ranges of 35 – 40 km fired by any artillery gun system in this category during trial firings using special ammunition, High Explosive base bleed – HE BB.
c. The ATAGS is being developed in mission mode by DRDO as a part of the Army’s artillery modernization programme.
Options:
a)1 and 2 only
b)1 and 3 only
c)2 and 3 only
d)All of the above
Answer: 3
Refer Page No 14 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

23. Which of the following statements about ASTRA missile are correct:
a. It belongs to the category of beyond visual range air-to-air missile.
b. It was developed as a result of a defense partnership between India and Russia.
Options:
a)1 only
b)2 only
c)Both 1 and 2
d)Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: 1
Refer Page No 14 of The Hindu Dated September 16, 2017.

“Daily Current Affairs – 17/09/2017 & 18/09/2017”

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International News:-

1. World’s most and least stressful cities 2017:-

  • Based on a new study by Zipjet, Stuttgart Germany is the least stressful city in the world.
  • The study has revealed the world’s most and least stressful cities of 2017, and ranked cities globally based on factors that cause stress, such as unemployment, physical and mental health, public transport, security, and even the lack of sunshine hours per year.
  • Baghdad, Iraq is the most stressful city in the world while Delhi is the 9th most stressful city.

2. International Day of Democracy: 15 September:-

  • In 2007 the United Nations General Assembly resolved to observe 15 September as the International Day of Democracy.
  • The purpose of International Day of Democracy is to promote and uphold the principles of democracy.
  • This year’s theme is ‘Democracy and Conflict prevention’.

3. 30th Anniversary of Montreal protocol and 23rd World Ozone Day Celebrated:-

  • 30th anniversary of the Montreal Protocol and 23rd World Ozone Day was observed on 16th September 2017.
  • The theme for the year 2017 is ‘Caring for all life under the Sun’.
  • The year 2017 marks the 30th Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
Points to Remember:-
  • The Montreal Protocol is one of the most successful global environmental treaties, the implementation of which has not only led to the phase-out of around 98% of ozone depleting chemicals, but also averted more than 135 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions.
  • The Montreal Protocol is the only environmental treaty which enjoys universal ratification of 197 UN member countries.

4. German citizenship is ranked the most valuable in the world:-

  • Not only do Germans have the most powerful passports in the world, they also have the highest quality of citizenship, according to a new report.
  • The consultancy Henley & Partners’ first Quality of Nationality Index (QNI) ranks the value of 161 nations’ citizenship on a scale of 0 to 100%.
  • European nations dominated the top 20 spots.

National News:-

1. India’s first centre for Animal Law opens in Hyderabad:-

  • Nalsar University of Law in Hyderabad has established India’s first Centre for Animal law.
    Union minister for Women and Child development Maneka Gandhi inaugurated the centre at the Shamirpet campus.
  • Humane Society International will also play an important role in the functioning of the centre by steering and coordinate its activities.

2. Assam govt passes PRANAM Bill:-

  • Assam Assembly has passed a first of its kind Bill that has made it mandatory for Assam government employees to look after their aged and dependent parent/s and physically challenged siblings, if any, who don’t have their own source of income.
  • The Assam Employees Parental Responsibility And Norms for Accountability and Monitoring (PRANAM) Bill was passed unanimously, with almost all the ruling and opposition MLAs backing it.
  • The parents or needy siblings who feel neglected can lodge complaints with the head of the department of the person who, after hearing both sides, may deduct 10-15 percent of the salary of the employee and give it to the parents for their survival.

3. Indigenous Development of Trawl System by DRDO:-

  • R&DE (Engrs), a premier system engineering laboratory under Armament & Combat Engineering (ACE) cluster of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has recently undertaken the design and development of Trawl System for the minefield area in the battle zone to meet the operational requirements of Indian Army.
  • The Trawl System developed by DRDO is capable of breaching a variety of land mines including passive and active influence mines.

4. Devendra Fadnavis launches ‘Maharashtra Mission 1 Million’:-

  • Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis has launched the ‘Maharashtra Mission 1 Million’ initiative under which over 10 lakh students across the state will play football.
  • According to Fadnavis, the Mission will not only create football players and lovers of the game, but will also help in overall development of the state.
  • Under the initiative, the state government aims to ensure that children come out in open spaces and play.

5. Opening Ceremony held for INDO-USA Joint Exercise Yudh Abhyas – 2017:-

  • Exercise Yudh Abhyas – 2017, a joint military exercise between Indian and US armies commenced at Joint Base Lewis McChord, Washington, USA with a brief and impressive opening ceremony.
  • The US contingent was represented by Company of 5th Infantry Battalion from 20 Infantry Regiment of the US Army while the Indian side was represented by soldiers of Gorkha Rifles from the Surya Command.

6. India will soon grant citizenship to Chakma, Hajong refugees:-

  • The Centre will soon grant citizenship to nearly one lakh Chakma and Hajong refugees, who came from the erstwhile East Pakistan five decades ago and are living in camps in the northeast.
  • In 2015, the Supreme Court had directed the Central government to grant citizenship to the Chakma and Hajong refugees, mostly staying in Arunachal Pradesh.
Points to Remember:-
  • Chakmas and Hajongs were originally residents of Chittagong Hill Tracts in the erstwhile East Pakistan.
  • They left their homeland when it was submerged by the Kaptai dam project in the 1960s.
  • The Chakmas, who are Buddhists, and the Hajongs, who are Hindus, also allegedly faced religious persecution and entered India through the then Lushai Hills district of Assam (now Mizoram).

7. Nation’s first Govt. mobile vet clinics launched:-

  • Telangana Chief Minister K. Chandrasekhar Rao flagged off a hundred mobile veterinary clinics for as many Assembly constituencies in the State.
  • The clinics, like 108 for people which are serviced by GVK-EMRI, will also be aided by the same combination on toll free number 1962. .
  • Billed as the first in the country, the programme won the appreciation of former Prime Minister Deve Gowda.

Economic News:-

1. India Signs 76 Million US Dollar Loan Deal with JICA:-

  • The Government of India signed a loan deal worth $76 million with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), for a project to upgrade the environment management plan at Alang-Sosiya ship recycling yards.
  • The total cost of the project will be $ 111 million, out of which $76 million will be provided as soft loan from JICA.
  • Out of the remaining amount, $25 million as taxes and fees will be borne by Government of Gujarat and the balance $10 million will be shared by Ministry of Shipping & Government of Gujarat.
  • The project will be executed by Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) and is likely to be completed by 2022.

2. Amazon India ties up with Bank of Baroda for micro lending:-

  • E-commerce giant Amazon India has tied up with Bank of Baroda to offer unsecured micro loans as small as Rs 1 lakh up to Rs 25 lakh in a short span of three-five days.
  • The interest rates would be competitive and would help small and medium businesses or sellers on the Amazon platform get access to easy loans, which will help boost their working capital and also help in the growth of their business.
Points To Remember:-
  • Bank of Baroda (BoB) is an Indian state-owned International banking and financial services company headquartered in Vadodara (earlier known as Baroda) in Gujarat.
  • It was founded in 1908.
  • Ravi Venkatesan is its chairman while PS Jayakumar is the MD and CEO.
  • ‘India’s international bank’ is the tagline of Bank of Baroda.

3. IndusInd Bank secures $200 mn loan from ADB for microlending:-

  • IndusInd Bank has secured up to $200 million (about Rs 1,282 crore) loan from Asian Development Bank (ADB) to serve low-income women borrowers in rural areas.
  • The seven-year senior loan will go towards IndusInd Bank’s micro-finance activities, the private players said in a statement.
  • As per the loan agreement, about 95 per cent of the ADB funding will go towards credit for women borrowers.
  • At least 70 per cent of the number of loans will be deployed to less developed states.
Points to Remember:-
  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in Mandaluyong, Manila, Philippines.
  • It has 67 member countries,Takehiko Nakao is the president of Asian Development Bank.

4. Govt considering its own cryptocurrency:-

  • The Central government is considering a proposal to introduce its cryptocurrency similar to Bitcoin.
  • Sources also said the government might name its cryptocurrency “Lakshmi”.
  • Proposal was discussed by a committee of government officials, and the panel found the idea of setting up and running blockchain for financial services useful.
Points to Remember:-
  • A cryptocurrency is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of additional units of the currency.
  • Cryptocurrencies are classified as a subset of digital currencies.
  • Bitcoin became the first decentralized cryptocurrency in 2009.

Current Affair Editorial – “The Arc To Tokyo”

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The Arc To Tokyo

Paper II: India and its neighbourhood- relations. Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

Context:

  • Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s visit to India, part of annual summits between the two countries, has set strategic ties on a fast track.
  • The bilateral agenda between India and Japan will range from issues of maritime security to nuclear energy and trade.
  • At the centrepiece of their summitry will be the inauguration of India’s first high-speed rail corridor from Mumbai to Ahmedabad.
  • India’s decision to partner with Japan for the 508-km, ₹1 lakh-crore project is as much about politics as it is about infrastructure:

The Shinkansen Technology and its track record:

  • The image of the platypus-snouted blue and white Shinkansen streaking past a snow topped Mount Fuji has become as synonymous with Japan
  • Japan, over the years, has been keen to export its high-speed train technology along with rolling stock.
  • Since October 1964, Shinkansen has emerged as the symbol of Japan’s post-World War II ascent to economic superpowerdom.
  • The Shinkansen encapsulates the archipelago’s engineering might and almost preternatural standards of safety and punctuality.
  • It has, over the years, carried over 10 billion passengers to date, without a single accident or casualty and an average delay of less than one minute.

The Problems faced by Shinkansen from within:

  • But despite this admirable track record, Japan has struggled to export its bullet train know-how.
  • Before signing on India, Taiwan had been Japan’s only successful sale but Taiwan is hardly a poster child for the system, given that its high-speed line has suffered heavy losses since opening in 2007.
  • Profitability is a notoriously hard ask for high-speed train networks.
  • In Japan itself, some routes, notably Tokyo-Osaka, are profitable, but to achieve this requires high volumes of passengers and highly priced tickets.
  • Over 350 trains operate on the Tokyo – Osaka Shinkansen line daily, ferrying about 163 million passengers a year.
  • The region served is demographically dense, home to over half of Japan’s population and such conditions are not easy to replicate and other high-speed lines in Japan have struggled.

The Chinese Challenge:

  • The latest challenge to Japan’s ambitions is the emergence of China as the new emperor of the superfast train.
  • Over the last decade, China has developed a 22,000 km high-speed rail network which boasts the ‘world’s fastest train’: the Shanghai Maglev that hits speeds of 430 km.
  • The Chinese Technology is also cheaper, making it an attractive proposition for the cost-conscious developing and middle-income countries of Asia.

The Battle To Export Bullet Trains:

  • China pipped Japan to the post at the last minute by securing a high-speed rail project in Indonesia that had been considered by Tokyo to be in the bag.
  • This last minute victory in 2015 happened because China offered to finance the line without any recourse to Indonesia’s government coffers.
  • China has also beaten Tokyo to becoming Thailand’s partner of choice for its first high-speed rail line.
  • The above battle to export bullet trains is clearly reflective of the broader rivalry between China and Japan for influence in Asia.
  • Consequently, the India deal is not only a business coup for Japan but also a geostrategic one.

The Ahmedabad-Mumbai bullet train project:

  • The Mumbai-Ahmedabad contract has been hard-won.
  • The project entails a loan worth $12 billion, at 0.1% interest, to be paid back over 50 years, taking care of over 80% of the project’s estimated costs.
  • Moreover, Japan will also supplement the financing with a generous package of technical assistance and training.
  • The significance of the Indian Bullet Train Project funded by Japan is reflected in these words: “India is not Indonesia or Thailand. It is a great nation, totally autonomous”.
  • And India is not as likely to submit to Chinese pressure because India is the only country in South Asia not to accede to the One Belt One Road Initiative of China.

Concerns related to the Indian Bullet Train Project:

  • In India, concerns related to costs, safety and misplaced priorities of the Bullet Train persist.
  • But the Japanese officials who are helming the Bullet Train Project in India were confident of ironing these problems out with some tweaks to the Japanese technology.
  • The necessary adjustments include the following: taking into account climatic differences, the possibility of electrical blackouts, as well as dust and other environmental conditions in India.

Some Interesting Parallels between India and Japan:

  • But there are some interesting parallels between India and Japan with regard to the Shinkansen technology.
  • When Japan developed its first Shinkansen lines in the 1960s, it was a poor country.
  • It had required financial assistance from the World Bank to carry the ambitious project forward.

Other aspects of the Indo Japan Summit:

  • The joint statement and comments by the two Prime Ministers in Gandhinagar also sent out a similar message that will be read closely in China on several counts.

On North Korea:

  • North Korea was mentioned as a “joint” challenge for India and Japan.
  • The statement on North Korea contained a phrase about holding countries “that have supported North Korea’s nuclear and missile programmes” accountable.
  • This statement was obviously aimed at Pyongyang’s benefactors in Beijing.

On Zero Tolerance Against Terrorism:

  • The clause calling for zero tolerance on terrorism referenced China’s veto on the Jaish-e-Mohammad chief being put on the list of UN-designated terrorists.

On Indo Pacific Region:

  • The title of the joint statement, “Toward a free, open and prosperous Indo-Pacific”, and statements on cooperation in the Indo Pacific region, indicate a much closer alignment between India and Japan in countering China’s influence in the South China Sea.

On The Indo Japan Nuclear Deal:

  • The coming into force of the India-Japan nuclear deal and more military and maritime exercises will buttress efforts to counter China in the Indo Pacific.

On The North East India:

  • India has also extended to Japan an offer denied to any other country, which is to assist in infrastructure development in the Northeast.

A Major Geopolitical Maneuver:

  • It is clear that the Indian government has set India-Japan ties on an accelerated geopolitical course that will be a major factor in its dealings with the rest of the world, especially China.

Areas for improvement:

  • This is a significant move since it is widely perceived that the United States is retreating from the region.
  • But there are many regions where the scope for improvement between the two countries is high.
  • While Japan is India’s largest donor and the third largest provider of FDI, bilateral trade has steadily declined since 2013.
  • The decision to finalise four new locations for special Japanese industrial townships may be only one way of addressing the difficulties businessmen face in India.

The Way Forward:

India and Japan should also look beyond their lofty geopolitical aims, at the more basic aspects of bilateral engagement.

  • However, both the countries should keep in mind the larger geopolitical context which is playing out itself in the region and make their moves accordingly.

Source: “THE HINDU Editorial 16/09/2017″

 

 

 

 

“Daily Current Affairs – 16/09/2017”

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International News:-

1)UN Security Council strongly condemns North Korea’s latest ballistic missile test; Demands immediate halt of such actions:-

  • UN Security Council has strongly condemned North Korea’s highly provocative launch of a missile that flew over Japan and demanded that Pyongyang immediately halt such actions.
  • In a unanimous statement backed by China, the UNSC said the launch was carried out just three weeks after a first missile overflew Japan and less than two weeks after Pyongyang’s sixth and biggest nuclear test.

2)Nepal Prez Bhandari stresses upon need for economic empowerment of women:-

  • President of Nepal Bidya Devi Bhandari has stressed upon the need for economic empowerment of women and guarantee of their equal participation at all levels of decision making.
  • Addressing a programme to release a documentary ‘Nepali women’s struggle and success’, in Kathmandu today, President Bhandari said that economic factor plays an important role in the empowerment of women.
  • She appealed to provide equal treatment and education to daughters and sons without any discrimination. President also insisted that constitutional and legal provisions made for equal participation of women in every state organ should be fully implemented.

3)North Korean leader Kim Jong-un vows to reach country’s nuclear goals:-

  • North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has vowed to reach the country’s nuclear goals. The KCNA news agency quoting him saying that the aim is to establish equilibrium of military force with the US.
  • Mr Kim’s comments come after North Korea fired its latest missile over Japan – in what is being described as the country’s farthest-reaching test. The move split world powers who united behind new UN sanctions against North Korea.

4)Operation Insaniyat: India to send relief to B’desh to help with Rohingya influx:-

  • India is sending humanitarian assistance under Operation Insaniyat to Bangladesh to help with the influx of Rohingya refugees.

• India is sending basic amenities that the refugees are in urgent need of at the moment.

• These things include rice, pulses, sugar, salt, cooking oil, tea, ready to eat noodles, biscuits, mosquito nets etc.

• UN estimates claim that around 379,000 Rohingya Muslims have fled to Bangladesh after the clashes between Rohingya militants and Myanmar army.

• Rohingya villages have been burnt and people have been killed in large numbers since August 25.

Points to Remember:-

• The Rohingya people are stateless Indo-Aryan people from Rakhine State, Myanmar.

• There were an estimated 1 million Rohingya living in Myanmar before the 2016–17 crisis.

• Described by the United Nations in 2013 as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world, the Rohingya population are denied citizenship under the 1982 Burmese citizenship law.

5)Paris and Los Angeles confirmed as hosts of 2024 and 2028 Olympic Games:-

  • After three failed attempts and 12 years after the demoralizing and disheartening loss to the London bid in 2005, Paris has finally been awarded the Olympic Games it has craved.

• International Olympic Committee (IOC) confirmed that the French capital would host the 2024 Olympics, while Los Angeles was awarded the 2028 Games.

• Tokyo, Japan will host 2020 Olympic Games.

National News:-

1)President Ram Nath Kovind launches ‘LILA Mobile App’:-

  • On the occasion of Hindi Diwas, President Ram Nath Kovind has launched a new ‘LILA Mobile App’ for Hindi lovers.

• Kovind launched the ‘ LILA Mobile App’ in the presence of Union Minister of Home Affairs Rajnath Singh and Minister of State (Home) Hansraj Gangaram Ahir and Ministers of State for Home Affairs Kiren Rijiju.

2)Centre to launch sanitation campaign Swachhta Hi Seva:-

  • The Centre will launch a nation- wide, fortnight-long sanitation campaign from 15 September to highlight the Modi government’s flagship cleanliness initiative Swachh Bharat Mission.

• The campaign, named ‘Swachhta Hi Seva’ (Cleanliness is Service) by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, will be launched by President Ram Nath Kovind from Ishworiganj village in Kanpur.

• The initiative, which is being coordinated by the Ministry of Drinking water and sanitation, will include ‘Sharamdaan’ or voluntary work and will focus on mass mobilisation and reinforce ‘jan andolan’ for sanitation to contribute to Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of a clean India.

3)Prakash Javadekar Announces Swachhta Ranking 2017:-

  • Ministry of Human Resource Development announced the Swachhta Rankings 2017 for Higher Education Institutes.

• In the rankings for this year, about 3500 institutes participated out of which 25 were selected for the awards in four different categories.

• The four categories are University, Colleges, Technical Institutes, and Government Institute.

The complete list of award recipients in the University category is:-

• O.P. Jindal Global University, Sonipat, Haryana

• Manipal University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

• Chitkara University, Kalu Jhanda, Solan, Himachal Pradesh

• K.L.E. Academy of Higher Education and Research, Belgaum, Karnataka

• Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, UP

In the Colleges category, the awardees are:-

• Kongu Arts and Science College, Erode, Tamil Nadu

• Vidya Pratishthans Arts, Commerce & Science College, M.I.D.C. Baramati, Pune,              Maharashtra

• Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

• S N R Sons College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

• K.G. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

The 7 awardees in the Technical Institutes category are:-

• Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

• Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh

• Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

• Vivekananda College of Engineering for Women, Tiruchengode, Tamil Nadu

• R.M.D. Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

• R.M.K. Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

• ABES Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, UP

The top 7 institutes in the government institute category are:-

• G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand

• Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu

• Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu

• NIT, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh

• IIT, Guwahati, Assam

• Govt. Post Graduate College for Girls, Chandigarh

• Panjab University, Chandigarh, Punjab

  • The awards are mostly dominated by institutes from down south and especially from Tamil Nadu which bagged 4 out of 5 places in colleges category and 5 out of 7 places in the Technical Institute category.

4)Sachin Tendulkar launches project to develop the poorest ward in Mumbai:-

  • Former Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar launched Mission-24, a programme aimed at improving the quality of life in one of Mumbai’s poorest wards through collaborative efforts in the next 24 months.

• Under Mission-24, efforts will be made to provide basic amenities to residents of M-East ward that includes slums of Shivaji Nagar, Deonar and Mankhurd.

• Through this project, the organisations aim to provide amenities like secondary schools and colleges, aanganwadis, maternity homes, health posts and dispensaries in the ward.

5)Connaught Place World’s 10th costliest office location:-

  • New Delhi’s Connaught Place is the world’s 10th most expensive office location with an annual prime rent of $111 per sq ft, reveals CBRE South Asia’s Global Prime Office Rents survey.

• The ranking has fallen by one position, moving down to tenth from ninth in March 2017.

• Hong Kong has emerged as the world’s costliest office location.

6)Dr Harsh Vardhan launches ‘Wood is Good’ campaign in New Delhi:-

  • Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change Dr Harsh Vardhan launched the ‘Wood is Good ‘ campaign in New Delhi.

• Wood is a climate-friendly material, as it is a renewable resource, having zero carbon footprint.

• The Minister advocated the balancing of environmental and developmental concerns and also urged the scientists and foresters to devise a solution to the problem of weeds.

Economic News:-

1)Google to launch mobile payment service in India:-

  • Tech giant Google is slated to unveil a digital payment service in India next week that has been developed for the local market.

• In July, National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) had said Google had completed the testing of its UPI payment service and was awaiting Reserve Bank of India’s approval to launch its service in the country.

• According to the website, Google is launching “Tez” which is more like Android Pay.

2)Japanese industrial townships to come up in four states:-

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that four locations have been finalized for development of Japanese industrial townships in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

• India and Japan signed 15 agreements, including one to give a fillip to India’s Act East policy by enhancing connectivity and developmental projects in India’s northeast, and for more flights between the two countries.

• The agreements were inked after the annual bilateral summit between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe.

3)NPAs to touch 10.5% by March 2018:-

  • Crisil Ratings said banks have only recognised two-thirds of their stressed loans as non-performing assets, and estimated the bad loan ratio to rise by 1 percentage point to 10.5 per cent by March 2018.

• The 9.5 per cent NPA figure for March 2017 includes only two-thirds of the overall stressed assets.

• The agency said it estimates the total amount of stressed loans, which includes NPAs and standard assets that are under pressure currently and could deteriorate into NPAs, to be at Rs 11.5 trillion or 14 per cent of the system.

“Daily Current Affairs – 15/09/2017”

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International News:-

1. Fifth EAS Economic Ministers’ Meeting held in Philippines:-

5th East Asia Summit Economic Ministers Meeting was held in Pasay City, Philippines on 9th September 2017.

• Mr.Ramon M. Lopez, Secretary of Trade and Industry of Philippines, chaired the meeting.

• Minister of Commerce & Industry of India, Suresh Prabhakar Prabhu represented India in the Meeting.

Points to Remember:-

• The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines is a unitary sovereign state and island country in Southeast Asia.

• Its capital is Manila while Currency is Peso.• It also hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank.
• Rodrigo Duterte is the President of Philippines.

2. TCS Features in Fortune 50 List of Companies That Changed the World:-

Tata Consultancy Services has been recognised in Fortune’s annual list of the Top 50 companies that are changing the world.

• The Fortune ‘Change the World’ list acknowledges companies that are using the profit motive to solve a multitude of societal problems.

• Ranked 30, TCS is the only Indian company on the prestigious list.

National News:-

1. 2-day National Conference on ‘Uniformed Women in Prison Administration’:-

The Minister of State for Home Affairs Shri Kiren Rijiju will inaugurate the 2-day National Conference on “Uniformed Women in Prison Administration” on 14 September.

• The Conference is being organised for women officers of the rank of Jailors to Dy. Superintendents of Prisons.

• The Conference is expected to benefit the participants being in their impressionable stage of service, by implementation of the knowledge gained through the Conference.

2. Regional Conference on Good Governance and Replication of Best Practices:-

The Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances (DARPG), Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Government of India is organising a 2-day Regional Conference on Good Governance and Replication of Best Practices on September 14-15, 2017 in collaboration with Government of Goa.

• The Secretary (DARPG), Shri C. Viswanath will inaugurate the conference tomorrow in Goa.

• The theme for this year’s Conference is Good Governance and Replication of Best Practices.

3. NTPC’s commercial power generation capacity to cross 50 GW:-

State-run power giant NTPC has said that two of its units will begin commercial operations this month, enhancing the generation capacity of NTPC Group to 50,108 MW.

• Unit-2 of 660 MW of Mouda Super Thermal Station, Stage- II (2 X 660 MW) will be declared on commercial operation form September 18, 2017

• Besides, Unit-1 of 660 MW of Solapur Super Thermal Station (2 X 660 MW) will also be declared on commercial operation from September 25, 2017.

• With this, the commercial power generation capacity of NTPC would become 42892 MW and that of NTPC Group, over 50 GW or 50108 MW.

4. High-speed rail training centre to come up in Vadodara:-

The ₹600-crore high-speed rail training centre for the first bullet train project will be set up in Vadodara, a senior official of the National High Speed Rail Corporation (NHSRC) said.

• The training centre will have a sample track fitted with the overhead electrical systems to enable testing of bullet trains that will run on the Mumbai-Ahmedabad route.

5. National Hindi Divas: 14 September:-

Hindi Divas is an annual day celebrated on 14 September in India.

• The event also serves as a patriotic reminder to Indian populations of their common roots and unity.

• Hindi Divas is celebrated on 14 September because on this day in 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India had adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India.

6. Karnataka first state to roll out electric vehicle policy:-

Karnataka is looking to attract investments to the tune of Rs 31,000 crore from companies looking at R&D and manufacturing of electric vehicles in the state.

• Karnataka is the first state to roll out an Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage Policy.

• The state estimates that it will be able to create employment for 55,000 individuals over the next few years through the electric vehicle industry.

7. Modi to inaugurate world’s second biggest dam on September 17:-

Fifty-six years after the foundation stone for the Sardar Sarovar Dam was laid by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in Narmada district’s Kevadia, the dam, one of India’s biggest, will be finally inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on September 17.

• The Narmada Control Authority had ordered the gates of the Sardar Sarovar Project be shut on June 16.

• After closure of the gates the height of the dam was increased to 138 metres, with storage capacity raised to 4.73 million cubic metres (MCM) from the existing 1.27 million cubic metres.

• Earlier, the height of the dam was 121.92 metres.

Economic News:-

1. HDFC Bank is India’s top brand, Reliance Jio joins at no 11:-

HDFC Bank retained its No 1 position in the BrandZ India top 50, doubling its brand value since 2014 with a sustained focus on improving services.

• The bank has retained the top slot for the fourth year in a row.

• Telecom provider Reliance Jio ranks at No 11, months after its launch.

• Airtel is on second spot while and State Bank of India is on third spot.

2. London Retains Its Crown as World’s Top Financial Center:-

London retained its crown as the world’s top financial center in a ranking that surveys industry professionals.

• The index has been released twice yearly since 2007.

• It ranks 92 cities on a 1,000-point scale.

• London has extended its lead over New York and Hong Kong despite ongoing uncertainty about the implications of Brexit.

3. India FY18 GDP growth likely at 7.1 percent:-

India’s GDP growth is expected to be around 7.1 per cent this fiscal following a likely pick up in industrial production as firms resort to ‘restocking’ post GST especially ahead of festive season, says a Nomura report.

• According to the Japanese financial services major, post-GST restocking is likely to drive a faster pace of industrial output growth in the coming quarters.

“Current Affairs Editorial – At home and in the world”

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At home and in the world

Paper II: India and its neighborhood- relations:-

The Barbaric violence in the Rakhine state against the Rohingyas:-

Villages, home to the Rohingya community, in the fractious state of Rakhine in western Myanmar, are being mercilessly, horrifically burnt down by the Myanmar Army.
The military, it is being alleged, separates the women and men and rape and mutilate the bodies of women and girl children.
Moreover, the United Nations report had documented numerous instances of gang rape and killings, including of babies and young children, by Myanmar’s security forces.
The Myanmarese Army’s viciousness, already unimaginably ghastly, has escalated even further.

Reaction of the United Nations Human Rights Chief:-

The U.N. human rights chief, Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein, called on Myanmar to put an end to this “brutal security operation”.
He termed the state’s actions against the Rohingya as a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.
The Rohingya are at the centre of a humanitarian catastrophe of terrifying proportions.
The Context: Plea to the Supreme Court of India by Rohingya Refugees:
The Supreme Court of India has agreed to hear an urgent plea made by two Rohingya Muslim refugees namely Mohammad Salimullah and Mohammad Shaqir, against the Indian government’s proposed move to deport their 40,000-strong refugee community back to their native land of Myanmar, where discrimination and possibly summary executions await them.

The Security Concerns of the Government of India:-

The government of India has condemned only the terrorist attack in Rakhine state, wherein several members of the Myanmar security forces lost their lives in the India – Myanmar Joint statement 2017.
The Minister of State for Home, Kiren Rijiju’s statement read: “As far as we are concerned they are all illegal immigrants. They have no basis to live here. Anybody who is [an] illegal migrant will be deported”.
Turning Back the Rohingyas:
In India, the state is so much as considering returning the refugees back to the jaws of not merely political persecution but of mind-boggling terror and savagery.
India’s national security fears are based on intelligence reports linking the radical Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army to the Lashkar E Taiba. The Rohingya Solidarity Organization are allegedly close to Hafiz Syed.
If translated into action, the stand of the Indian government and the comments of the minister would also constitute a contravention of India’s obligations under both domestic and international law.

India’s obligations under Indian Constitution:-

The submissions of two Rohingya refugees to the Supreme Court in the form of a petition, rests on two broad planks:
One, that any deportation would violate their fundamental rights to equality and to life, under Articles 14 and 21 of the Constitution.
And, two, that any action by India in returning them to Myanmar would infringe international law, particularly the principle of non-refoulement.

India and the U.N. Convention on the status of Refugees:-

India might find itself committing a grave error of substantial moral purport by denying the Rohingyas asylum.
India is not bound to follow the principle of non-refoulement, since it is not a signatory to the 1951 U.N. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.
In any event, any deportation would be saved by the exceptions to the principle, in that the Rohingya are guilty of committing crimes against peace and are a threat to India’s national security.

The Principle of Non Refoulment:-

The principle of non-refoulement is articulated in Article 33 of the 1951 Convention.
It mandates that no state shall expel or return a refugee to “the frontiers of territories where his life or freedom would be threatened on account of his race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion”.

Exceptions to the Principle of Non Refoulment:-

However, it allows for an exception in cases where there are “reasonable grounds” for regarding a refugee as a “danger to the security of the country.”
The Convention also excludes generally from refugee status individuals guilty of, among other things, committing war crimes or crimes against peace and humanity.
India is not a party to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

Laws that stretch beyond treaty obligations:-

But we need to heed the existence of sources of law that stretch beyond treaty obligations.
These include norms of customary international law, where binding rules have been crystallised as a result of the practice of states.
The principle of non-refoulement is widely regarded as one such rule.
The principle is so well enshrined that it constitutes a peremptory norm from which no derogation whatsoever is permitted.

The Universal Acceptance of the Principle of Non Refoulment:-

But there is no denying that non-refoulement is now nearly universally accepted as constituting a fundamental rule of international law.

The two precedents by Gujarath and Delhi High Courts:-

At least two high courts in India have expressly held that the country is bound to follow the principle.
In their judgments respectively in Ktaer Abbas Habib Al Qutai v.Union of India (1998) and Dongh Lian Kham v. Union of India (2015) the Gujarat and Delhi High Courts have virtually incorporated non refoulement into the guarantees of Article 21 of the Constitution.
“This principle’s application”, the court noted, “protects life and liberty of a human being irrespective of his nationality”.
The court also mentioned that “It is encompassed in Article 21 of the Constitution, so long as the presence of a refugee is not prejudicial to the law and order and security of India.”

Incorporation of Customary International Principles by the Supreme Court:-

Now, the Supreme Court in different cases has incorporated other principles of customary international law into municipal law, where there are no local statute embodying rules to the contrary.
The Supreme Court can have little option but to recognise, as the Gujarat and the Delhi High Courts have done, that non refoulement is a foundational principle that creates obligations under both domestic and international law alike.

Addressing the concern of Indian State:-

It might well be true that the state must be accorded an element of latitude in shaping its policies.
The government cannot plausibly be arguing that each of the 40,000 Rohingya constitutes a threat to India’s safety, or that each of them is guilty of committing crimes against peace.
The petitions led by the Rohingya refugees are an important test of both the Supreme Court and the Indian state’s moral calibre.

The Gravity of the present crisis and the way forward:-

However, the present crisis goes beyond matters of mere perception.
It goes to the root of what it means to be a civilised state, of treating every person, irrespective of constructs of citizenship, with equal care, compassion and respect.
This calls for India to adopt a moral stand based on principles and legislate a permanent asylum law which takes into account the evolving concepts of migration, asylum and refugees into context.

Source: “THE HINDU – Editorial for September 15, 2017”