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“Current affairs pulse – 08 -12- 2017”

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1) Consider the following with reference to UIDAI and Aadhaar and answer.
a. Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), a statutory authority, under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, under the provisions of the Aadhaar Act, 2016.
b. Aadhaar is a proof of residence and not a proof of citizenship.
c. Prior to the enactment of the Act, UIDAI functioned as an attached office of Planning Commission.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

2) With reference to Project Ghatak, consider the following and answer.
a. A project has direct oversight from the Prime Minister’s Office and the National Security Advisor.
b. Ghatak began as the DRDO’s Autonomous Unmanned Research Aircraft – AURA.
c. Ghatak will be powered by a modified dry thrust version of the Kaveri engine.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

3) Consider the following with reference to characteristics of depressions and answer.
a. A low-pressure system, also known as a depression occurs when the weather is dominated by stable conditions.
b. They are often accompanied by fronts.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

4) Consider the following and answer.
a. Chilka Lake, is the largest brackish water coastal lake in India.
b. The coastal plain of Odisha is called the “Hexadeltaic region”
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

5) Consider the following with reference to National Green Tribunal and answer.
a. The Tribunal has Original Jurisdiction on matters of “substantial question relating to environment”
b. The tribunal does not follow civil law. it follows principles of natural justice.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

6) Consider the following with reference to Special Marriage act and answer.
a. Special Marriage Act, 1954 is an Act of the Parliament of India which covers Indian nationals in foreign countries as well.
b. Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs, Christians, Parsis, or Jews can also perform marriage under the Special Marriage Act, 1954
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

7) With reference to IIP, consider the following and answer.
a. The all India IIP is a composite indicator that measures the short-term changes.
b. It is compiled and published monthly by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO).
c. The current base year is 2011-2012.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

8) With reference to INS Arihant, consider the following and answer.
a. India’s first indigenously built, nuclear armed submarine.
b. The vessel was built under the Advanced Technology Vessel project.
c. India will become one of only six countries in the world with the knowledge of designing, engineering and operating a nuclear submarine.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

9) With reference to Kumbh mela, consider the following and answer.
a. It is the festival of the sacred Pitcher and the largest peaceful congregation of pilgrims on earth.
b. The festival is held at Allahabad, Haridwar, Ujjain and Nasik every four years by rotation
c. Along with Nowruz, Kumbh Mela is listed in the UNESCO’s world intangible cultural Heritage in 2017.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

10) Consider the following and answer.
a. Union Government is going to observe birth anniversary of the father of Indian Constitution B R Ambedkar (April 14) as “Water Day” in the country.
b. Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which contested the 1937 Bombay election to the Central Legislative Assembly.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

11) With respect to UDYA scheme, consider the following.
a. All but Odisha, West Bengal and Nagaland – have opted to join the Centrally-sponsored UDAY.
b. The scheme is optional for the states to join.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

12) With reference to Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), consider the following and answer.
a. Parliament amended the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Act, 1934 for giving a statutory backing to Monetary Policy Committee (MPC).
b. Under the Monetary Policy Framework Agreement, the RBI will be responsible for containing inflation targets at 4% (with a standard deviation of 2%) in the medium term.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

13) With reference to formation of Cyclones, consider the following and answer.
a. A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a High-pressure center.
b. Cyclonic wind blows counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and blowing clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 8/12/17

“Current affairs pulse – 07 -12- 2017”

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1) With reference to Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, consider the following and answer.
a. Tadoba Andhari Reserve is the largest national park in Maharashtra.
b. Park is home to other mammals like Sloth Bear, Leopard, Rusty Spotted Cat also.
c. It represents Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous Teak Forests in the Tiger habitat.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

2) Consider the following and answer.
a. Election commission gives recognition of parties and allotment of symbols via the authority vested in it via the Representation of The People (Amendment) Act, 1951.
b. This duty of accepting or rejecting a nomination paper is performed by the returning officer who notifies to all the contesting candidates the date, time and place for the formal scrutiny of nomination papers.
c. The other election commissioners cannot be removed from office without recommendation of the CEC.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

3) Consider the following with reference to Kautilya and answer.
a. He is known as Indian Machiavelli in the western world.
b. Chanakya worked two millenniums earlier than Machiavelli.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

4) With reference to Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), consider the following and answer.
a. Parliament amended the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Act, 1934 for giving a statutory backing to Monetary Policy Committee (MPC).
b. Under the Monetary Policy Framework Agreement, the RBI will be responsible for containing inflation targets at 4% (with a standard deviation of 2%) in the medium term.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

5) With reference to Universal Health Coverage (UHC), consider the following and answer.
a. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is free access to healthcare to all, enabled and guaranteed by the government and provided only by public sector.
b. UHC project, which was declared a priority for the 12th Plan period (2012-17), has been shelved due to fiscal constraints during the NDA Government.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

6) Recently Bamboo was taken out ‘tree’ category from Indian forest act by President’s ordinance, with this, consider the following and answer.
a. It will encourage bamboo plantation by farmers in private lands.
b. The omission exempts it from requiring permits for felling or transportation of bamboo grown in non-forest areas.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

7) Consider the following with reference to Wassenaar Arrangement and answer.
a. It is an Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies,
b. It is a multilateral export control regime (MECR) with 41 participating states.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

8) Consider the following with reference to Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy and answer
a. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood by condemning the incident.
b. Gandhi returned the Kaiser-i-Hind Gold medal given to him for his work during Boer war.
c. Gandhi declared that the British have lost the moral right to rule this country.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

9) Consider the following and answer.
a. The state executive is made of Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers only.
b. Governor in a state in India is actually an agent of the President
c. The office of Governor is modeled as much like the provincial Governors of Canada.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

10) Consider the following with reference to Kani Tribes and answer.
a. Kani is a tribe living in the Western Ghats area of Kerala, India.
b. A recently discovered species of tree-dwelling crab has been named Kani maranjandu after the tribe.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

11) With reference to Hague Convention, consider the following and answer.
a. Provides an expeditious method to return a child internationally abducted by a parent from one member country to another.
b. India has decided not to sign and ratify the convention.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

12) Consider the following with reference to International Solar Alliance (ISA) and answer.
a. It is the first treaty-based international intergovernmental organisation to be based out of India.
b. So far, 19 countries are part of the compact including Maldives.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

13) With reference to cyclone signal hoisted at ports, consider the following and answer.
a. India uses an elaborate signal system ranging from 1 to 11.
b. The IMD sends information periodically to ports: usually four times a day, and once every three hours in case of a cyclone.
c. Signal 11: This means all communications have failed with cyclone warning office.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

14) Consider the following with reference to International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and answer.
a. It is a specialised agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating poverty and hunger in rural areas of developing countries.
b. Membership in IFAD is open to all member states of the United Nations or its specialised agencies or the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

15) Consider the following and answer.
a. Quality Council of India (QCI) is an autonomous body that assures quality standards across all spheres of economic and social activities.
b. Quality Council of India had been commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Development to conduct an extensive survey to measure the success rate of Swachh Bharat Mission.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

16) With reference to Non-Performing Assets in India, consider the following and answer.
a. Public sector banks are more stressed than their private sector counterparts.
b. IDBI Bank and Indian Overseas Bank have NPA ratios of over 20 per cent.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

17) With reference to AMRUT scheme, consider the following and answer.
a. It is an urban transformation scheme with the focus of the urban renewal projects to establish infrastructure.
b. Union Government provides an assistance of 50 per cent of project cost for cities with a population of up to 10 lakhs each.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

18) With reference to Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR), consider the following and answer.
a. It is an autonomous organisation of the Government of India, involved in India’s external cultural relations, through cultural exchange with other countries.
b. It was founded by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the first Education Minister of independent India.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

19) Consider the following and answer.
a. The coverage of the Agreement on Agriculture also includes wines, spirits and tobacco products, as well as fibres (such as cotton).
b. Blue Box contains direct payment subsidies which can be increased without limit, so long as payments are linked to production-limiting programs.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

20) With reference to the challenges faced by PDS, consider the following and answer.
a. High procurement and high MSP on rice and wheat has led led to the high production of rice and wheat neglecting other nutritious crop.
b. Intended beneficiary are not targeted.eg.ghost ration card.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 7/12/17

“EDITORIAL MADE SIMPLE-7th December 17 – Island hopping — on Maldives-China FTA”

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Island hopping — on Maldives-China FTA

The Maldives’ FTA with China signals a drift in Delhi-Male ties:

• The announcement of a free trade agreement between the Maldives and China is another sign of Beijing’s success in its outreach in South Asia.
• After its push for maritime linkages across the Indian Ocean, including naval exercises and port projects, and for the enhancement of regional connectivity through the Belt and Road Initiative
o China seems to be ready to ramp up business ties across South Asia.
• China already has an FTA with Pakistan
o and is exploring or negotiating FTAs with Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal.
• The negotiations with the Maldives took about three years and were completed in September this year; it was ratified overnight by Parliament in Male.

Tilt towards china & Delhi’s response:

• The agreement is expected to be signed this week, during President Abdulla Yameen’s first state visit to China.
• While New Delhi has made no public statement
o Yet, it has reportedly made its displeasure known, particularly on the speed and stealth with which the negotiations were completed.

Chines Project:

• However, apart from the actual FTA, the rapid growth in China-Maldives ties has not been hidden from anyone.
• This is driven by massive infrastructure projects, including the development of Hulhule island and the “Friendship” bridge connecting it to Male.
• Apart from investments of $1 billion, Chinese companies are exploring tourism prospects in the Maldives, leases to resort islands, and reclamation projects.

Delhi’s Concern:

• While this can be seen as a natural outcome of the Maldives’ development plans, there are reasons for India to worry.
o The Yameen government also said this week that it is not satisfied with the working of the FTA with India.
 That statement, made by the Fisheries Minister at a press conference in Colombo, is likely to be discussed in detail between New Delhi and Male.
o Second, the manner in which the FTA was rushed through Parliament in a matter of minutes at midnight
 with opposition members complaining they had not received enough notice, suggests a haste that would naturally worry India.
• The biggest worry for India is that the FTA will draw the Maldives more closely into China’s security net.
• The move also shows that the Yameen government is not inclined to pay much heed to international concerns over internal unrest.

Possible Reason’s:

 One reason for Mr. Yameen keeping India out of the loop on the FTA talks may be New Delhi’s new policy of engaging with the Maldivian opposition, especially former President Mohammad Nasheed.
Male’s Statement:
 Although Mr. Yameen has categorically stated that the Maldives will remain a “demilitarised zone”, there are concerns that the PLA-Navy might be looking for a military base in the islands linked to projects in Djibouti, Gwadar and Hambantota.

Goodwill visit:

 The docking of three Chinese naval warships in Male harbour in August, the first such “goodwill visit”, was significant in this respect.
 China’s growing presence in the Indian Ocean presents a challenge to India as it looks to define its place in the U.S.-led “Indo-Pacific” realignment.

“EDITORIAL MADE SIMPLE – 6th December 17 – Low conviction rates and a lack of a lawful definition of crime mark criminal administration in India”

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Low conviction rates and a lack of a lawful definition of crime mark criminal administration in India

• Police reform in India has been concerned with political interference ever since the landmark Supreme Court judgement, in 2006, on the subject.

“Crime in India 2016”:

• National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)’s, “Crime in India 2016”- presents a dismal picture of the key performance statistic with only 47% convictions in Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes at the national level

Delhi Vs Mumbai:

• Delhi provides an interesting case study, where there is no political interference and the Police Commissioner reports to the Lieutenant Governor.
• With a population smaller than Mumbai, it has two times the number of police stations.
• Yet, in Delhi, while 1,90,876 persons were sent to trial last year, there were only 9,837 IPC convictions in the year.
• In Delhi only 58% of those arrested were chargesheeted, while in Mumbai, more persons were chargesheeted than were arrested for IPC crimes.
• In Delhi
o 13,803 crimes against women were reported and no chargesheets filed in 4,371 cases (32%)
• in Mumbai
o 5,128 crimes reported against women, final reports were filed in only 15% of cases.
• The key statistic of police performance is not merely correct reporting and recording but chargesheets and convictions, as this impacts on criminal behaviour.

DNA testing:

• In Delhi, DNA testing, which can secure higher conviction rates, is, inexplicably, a low priority.
• There is only one forensic testing laboratory, with around 9,000 samples pending for examination.
• Over 5,000 are DNA samples. Delays in this crucial evidence, which plays an important factor in acquittals, are a setback as samples deteriorate with time.
• Consequently, Delhi has a conviction rate of only 21%, 24% and 30% in cases of kidnapping and abduction, rape and murder, respectively.

Delhi Police website:

• The Delhi Police website says that it is perhaps the world’s largest metropolitan police force and arguments that Delhi accounts for 38% of the total crime under the IPC because of its migrant population are a simplistic explanation.
• Delhi accounts for five times the IPC crime when compared with Mumbai, and 33% of violent crime in metros when compared with 13% in Mumbai.

London Model:

• There is a need to distinguish between accountability and operational responsibility.
• For example, ‘the Mayor of London is responsible for setting policing priorities that will hold the Met Police Commissioner to account.
• Operational decision-making on day-to-day policing remains the responsibility of the Metropolitan Police Commissioner.
• The Police and Crime Plan 2013-2016 has clear performance measures that focus on results such as 20% reduction in key neighbourhood crimes, 20% reduction in delays in the criminal justice system, and 20% reduction in reoffending by young people leaving custody.

Unresolved issues:

• 1stDespite the recommendations of Law Commissions and the Supreme Court, as well going by experience in the developed world, we do not have separate wings for investigation of crime and for law and order.
• Similarly, in most countries, the prosecutor, and not the police, has discretion on whether to press charges as they involve adjudication.
• Years ago, the Law Commission had suggested a directorate of prosecution independent of the police to guide investigation.
• 2nd There is still controversy over which kinds of conduct are best controlled by the application of criminal law and which kinds by other means.
o For example, special and local offences account for as much crime as under provisions of the IPC, with nearly 60% of cases under liquor and narcotics offences at the national level.
o Causing simple and grievous injures under rash driving accounts for 11% of IPC crimes; theft also accounts for 16.6% of IPC crime at the national level.
• 3rd the effectiveness of prisons is now being questioned
• Nearly two-thirds of the prison population is awaiting trial and half the number of undertrials are normally acquitted.
• Over 80% of prisoners are sentenced to terms less than three months, 40% are under 30 years old, semi-literate and convicted under special and local acts.
• Criminologists now feel that short-term sentences expose such prisoners to criminal indoctrination in jail and social condemnation on release, with a strong case for greater reliance on compounding, probation and parole.

Way Forward:

• The main purpose of criminal administration should be the prevention of crime, and the police cannot be an instrument of social change.
• Administrative measures and fines levied by honorary and executive magistrates will change behaviour better than penal action.

“Current Affairs Pulse – 06 -12- 2017”

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1) Consider the following with respect to ‘Foreign Trade Policy’ and answer.
a. Five existing schemes to promote merchandize exports have been merged into a single Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS).
b. To integrate the FTP with Make in India, the government has reduced export obligation for capital goods purchased from Indian suppliers under the EPCG {Export Promotion of Capital Goods} scheme.
c. The policy calls for online filing of documents/ applications and paperless trade in 24×7 environments.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

2) With reference to Lashkar-e-Taiba consider the following and answer.
a. It was founded in 1987 by Hafiz Saeed, and others in Afghanistan, with funding from Osama Bin Laden.
b. Its stated objective is to introduce an Islamic state in South Asia and to “liberate” Muslims residing in Indian Kashmir.
c. group operates several training camps in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

3) Consider the following and answer.
a. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Antyodaya Yojana a new scheme of the Modi Government to replace only the National Rural Livelihood Mission (Ajeevika).
b. Mahila Kisan Sashkitikaran Pariyojna (MKSP) is one of the components of NRLM.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

4) With reference to formation of Cyclones, consider the following and answer.
a. A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a High-pressure center.
b. Cyclonic wind blows counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and blowing clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

5) Consider the following with reference to Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant and answer.
a. It is the single largest nuclear power station in India, situated in Koodankulam, Tamil Nadu.
b. The power generated from the plant will provide electricity to Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala and Karnataka.
c. The nuclear reactors of the plant have been built with French expertise.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

6) Consider the following and answer.
a. Rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex.
b. India is the world’s sixth largest rubber producer, with Kerala accounting for 80 percent of the country’s rubber production.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

7) With reference to Goondas act, consider the following and answer.
a. It is a special law enacted with the intention of curbing the menace of ‘Organized Crime’ or ‘Criminal Syndicate’ or ‘Underworld Gangs’.
b. States which don’t have a special law such as Goonda Act mostly make use of National Security Act, 1980 to deal with menace of organized criminals within their state.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

8) Consider the following with reference to Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar and answer.
a. He is the first Ph.D in Economics and the first double doctorate holder in Economics in South Asia.
b. He wrote a book called – “The problem of rupee—its orgin & its solution.”
c. He established the Central Water Commission to facilitate the development of irrigation projects at both the Central and the state level.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

9) Consider the following and answer.
a. Polavaram Project is a multi-purpose irrigation project which has been accorded national project status by the union government.
b. Its reservoir spreads in parts of Chhattisgarh and Odisha States also.
c. Prakasam Barrage stretches 1223.5 m across the Godavari River.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

10) Consider the following with reference to receiving country for remittances and answer.
a. India the top remittance-receiving country second only to China, according to a UN report.
b. The economic slowdown in the GCC has adversely impacted migrant worker flows from the South Asia Region.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

11) Consider the following with reference to Winter Olympics and answer.
a. IOC selected the city of Pyeongchang, South Korea to host the 2018 Winter Olympics.
b. Russia’s Olympic team has been barred from the 2018 Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

12) Consider the following and answer
a. Gulf Cooperation Council is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf including for Iraq.
b. Three members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)—Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain—have withdrawn their ambassadors from Qatar.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

13) With reference to Asian Development Bank, consider the following and answer.
a. ADB is multilateral lending agency based in Manila, Philippines.
b. It provides finance to both sovereign countries as well as private parties.
c. It provides hard loans to middle income countries while soft loans to poorer countries.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

14) Consider the following with reference to City Gas Distribution (CGD) and answer.
a. Petroleum Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) has identified 228 Geographical Areas (GAs) for CGD bidding by 2022.
b. The government has set a target to provide PNG connections to 10 million households by 2019.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

15) Consider the following with reference to the achievements of MGNERGA and answer.
a. MGNREGA has reached a major milestone by geotagging one crore assets created under it.
b. Gram Rozgar Sahayak uploads the photos of assets on the Bhuvan web portal run by ISRO’s National Remote Sensing Centre via a mobile app.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

16) Consider the following with reference to Darjeeling tea and answer.
a. Unlike most Indian teas, Darjeeling tea is normally made from the small-leaved Chinese variety.
b. Darjeeling tea became the first Indian product to receive a GI tag.
c. Chicken soup: A nickname for very milky Darjeeling.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

17) With reference to Banana Production in India, consider the following and answer.
a. Banana is most produced fruit of India.
b. Chengalikodan Nendran Banana from Kerala.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

18) Consider the following and answer.
a. Central Information Commission (CIC) set up under the Right to Information Act.
b. The Commission includes 1 Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and not more than 10 Information Commissioners (IC) who are appointed by the President of India.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

19) With reference to AYUSH, consider the following and answer.
a. Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy, abbreviated as AYUSH.
b. The objective of AYUSH is to promote medical pluralism and to introduce strategies for mainstreaming the indigenous systems of medicine.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

20) Consider the following and answer.
a. Saubhagya web portal will enable every state to fill current status of progress of electrification works which will enable accountability for State DISCOM.
b. Saubhagya Scheme aims to provide last mile electricity connectivity to all rural and urban households.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 6/12/17

“Daily current affairs – 04 -12- 2017 & 05 -12- 2017”

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International News

1. First phase of Chabahar port inaugurated:

  • The first phase of Chabahar port, located in Iran’s southeastern Sistan-Baluchestan province, was inaugurated by Iranian President Hassan Rouhani in the presence of representatives from India, Afghanistan and several other countries of the region.
  • The first phase of the Chabahar port project is known as the Shahid Beheshti port.
    The port is likely to ramp up trade among India, Afghanistan and Iran.

2. ‘Populism’ is Cambridge dictionary’s ‘word of the year’:

  • The word “populism” has been announced as the Cambridge Dictionary 2017 Word of the Year.
  • The dictionary defines populism as “political ideas and activities that are intended to get the support of ordinary people by giving them what they want”.

3. International conference on climate change begins in Nepal:

  • Nepal President Bidya Devi Bhandari has inaugurated an international conference in Hindu Kush to draw attention towards the adverse effects of global warming.
  • The four-day conference is attended by more than 300 experts from different countries of Asia including India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, Myanmar.
  • V K Saraswat, member of India’s Neeti foundation is leading the Indian delegation in the conference.

National News

1. Mega Northeast Exhibition cum Sale Bonanza’ inaugurated:

  • The Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) for Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh announced Rs. 90 crore for “Northeast Hill Area Development” beginning from Tamenglong district on a pilot basis, in the first phase, for a period of two years.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh said that he had made the commitment to introduce an exclusive hill area development programme during his visit to Imphal and the purpose behind this was to ensure equitable development of all the districts of the State, notwithstanding their diversities of topography, geographical conditions and other aspects.

2. Centre increases the agricultural education budget this year by 47.4 percent:

  • The government of India has increased the budget of Agricultural Education by 47.4% this year as compared to the financial year 2013-14.
  • Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmer’s Welfare, Shri Radha Mohan Singh has said that it is our main objective to attract youth including school children towards agricultural education.
  • The Agriculture Minister said that two years back Government of India decided to celebrate National Agricultural Education Day on December 3 because it is the birthday of our first Union Agriculture Minister and Former President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad.

3. India’s Biggest Floating Solar Power Plant To Be Inaugurated In Kerala:

  • Kerala Electricity Minister M.M. Mani will inaugurate the largest floating solar power plant in the country at the Banasura Sagar dam in Wayanad on 4 December.
  • The floating solar power plant that floats on the surface of the water has a capacity of 500 kilowatts. This is the country’s largest floating solar plant.
  • Constructed by Thiruvananthapuram-based Ad tech Systems, the plant will generate seven lakh units per year. The total cost of the project is Rs. 9.25 crore.

4. ICG conducts Regional Level Marine Oil Pollution Response Exercise:

  • The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) conducted a Regional Level Marine Oil Pollution Response Exercise called ‘Clean Sea 2017’ at sea off Port Blair, Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • The objective of the exercise was to ascertain preparedness of the Indian Coast Guard, resource agencies and other stakeholders in responding to a major oil spill.

5. International Conference on AYUSH and Wellness inaugurated in New Delhi:

  • The First Ever International Conference on AYUSH and Wellness ‘Arogya 2017’ was inaugurated by the Minister of Commerce and Industry, Shri Suresh Prabhu and Minister of State for AYUSH, Shri Shripad Yesso Naik in New Delhi.
  • The three day exhibition cum conference is being held at Vigyan Bhawan from 4th to 7th December, 2017.
  • ‘Arogya 2017’ has been jointly organized by Ministry of AYUSH and Ministry of Commerce and Industry of Government of India including Pharmexcil in partnership with FICCI to showcase the strength and scientific valuation of traditional system of medicine.
  • Nearly 1500 delegates from India and 60 countries are participating in ‘Arogya 2017’.

6. 6th International Tourism Mart to Begin in Guwahati:

  • “6th International Tourism Mart” (ITM) will begin in Guwahati, Assam. The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, in association with the North Eastern States is organizing this Mart from 5-7 December, 2017.
  • Shri Jagdish Mukhi, Governor of Assam will inaugurate the Mart in the presence of Shri Sarbananda Sonowal, KJ.Alphons,Minister of State (I/C) for Tourism, Chief Minister Assam, Union Tourism Secretary Smt. Rashmi Verma and other dignitaries from Central Ministries and North Eastern States.
  • The 6th International Tourism Mart, will put the spotlight on India’s “Act East Policy”, blossoming ties with ASEAN and the larger East Asia region, home to the world’s rapidly growing economies and India’s emerging tourism markets.

7. Maharashtra, Gujarat On High Alert due to Cyclone Ockhi:

  • After crossing Lakshadweep , cyclone Ockhi has moved towards Maharashtra and Gujarat, reported IMD officials.
  • The cyclone originated near the coast of Sri Lanka and travelled hugging the coasts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala towards Lakshadweep claiming 19 lives in Kerala in its wake.
    It has now moved towards Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Economic News

1. Fitch lowers 2017-18 growth projection to 6.7%:

  • International ratings agency Fitch has lowered the country’s GDP growth projection for 2017-18 to 6.7 per cent.
  • According to Fitch’s December Global Economic Outlook (GEO), the global ratings agency reduced the growth forecast for the fiscal year to end-March 2018 (FY18) to 6.7 per cent from 6.9 per cent.

2. Venezuela to Launch Oil-Backed Cryptocurrency:

  • Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro has announced the launch of a sovereign cryptocurrency “petro” which could bypass the U.S.-led financial sanctions, according to a market commentator.
  • It is no surprise that digital currencies have become more popular as reports have been emerging that Venezuela’s economic crisis is triggering increased use of Bitcoin due to its currency — the bolivar — plunging in value.

“Current Affairs Pulse – 05 -12- 2017”

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1) Consider the following with reference to Indian National Congress and answer.
a. Indian National Congress was founded by a Retired Civil Servant and not by any Indian.
b. British Committee of INC was founded in 1889 and in 1890; this committee started a journal called India.
c. when the Congress met for the first time on 28 December 1885, the Secretary of State for India was Lord Randolph Churchill.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

2) Colour codes are being used since post monsoon season of 2006 the different stages of the cyclone warning bulletins as desired by the National Disaster Management, Which among the following are correctly matched.
Stage of warning Colour code
Cyclone Alert Yellow.
Cyclone Warning Orange.
Post landfall out look Red.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

3) Considee the following and answer.
a. Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh.
The jackfruit tree is a widely cultivated and popular food item throughout the tropical regions of the world.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

4) Consider the following and answer.
a. The agency monitoring the anti-Money laundering activities in India is the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU-IND).
b. Black money is that amount money which is liable for taxation, but on which tax is not paid or evaded.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

5) Consider the following with reference to Lycopene and answer.
a. Lycopene is responsible for the red color of tomatoes.
b. Lycopene plays a role in preventing and slowing several types of cancer.
c. Lycopene is chemically a carotene but has no vitamin A activity.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

6) Consider the following with respect to Former CM of TN, Jayalalitha and answer.
a. She was an Indian actor and politician who served six terms as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for over fourteen years between 1991 and 2016.
b. In 1991 Jayalalithaa became chief minister, Tamil Nadu’s youngest, for the first time.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

7) With reference to Meghamalai, consider following and answer.
a. Mountain range situated in the Western Ghats in Idukki District, Kerala.
b. Rare great Indian hornbills are found here.
c. The sanctuary is also home to the endangered, arboreal grizzled giant squirrel.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

8) Consider the following with referenced to 6th International Tourism Mart” (ITM) and answer.
a. The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, in association with the North-Eastern States is organizing this Mart in December, 2017.
b. International buyers and media delegates from countries around the world and from different regions of the country are participating in the Mart.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

9) Consider the following and answer.
a. Petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining.
b. Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

10) With reference to Leprosy, consider the following and answer.
a. India is considered the point of origin of leprosy with skeletal evidence of the disease dating to 2000 B.C.
b. The disease mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and the eyes.
c. Leprosy is curable and treatment provided in the early stages averts disability.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

11) Consider the following with reference to Financial Resolution and Deposit Insurance (FRDI) Bill, 2017 and answer.
a. Bill deals only with the companies that are in the financial sector.
b. It also aims to inculcate discipline among financial service providers in the event of financial crises, by limiting the use of public money to bail out distressed entities.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

12) With reference to Finance Commission of India, consider the following and answer.
a. Finance Commission was established by the President of India under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution.
b. Formed to define the financial relations between the central government of India and the individual state governments.
c. N.K.Singh heads the 15th finance Commission of India.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

13) Consider the following with reference to Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY) and answer.
a. The objective of this scheme to launch a Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) Bank to support the entrepreneurs of Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward classes entrepreneurs in the MSME sector.
b. The scheme provides loans to micro units in three categories ranging from Rs. 50,000 to Rs. 10 lakh.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

14) Consider the following and answer.
a. World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a survey conducted and published by the International Monetary Fund.
b. Fitch rating has lowered India’s growth rate for FY18.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

15) Consider the following with reference to Coffee industry in India and answer.
a. Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states.
b. The two well known species of coffee grown are the Arabica and Robusta.
c. In the Indian context, coffee growing started with an Indian Muslim saint, Baba Budan who, while returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca, smuggled seven coffee beans from Yemen to Mysore in India.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

16) Consider the following with reference to Sekhmet and answer.
a. In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet, is a warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing.
b. Sekhmet also is a solar deity, sometimes called the daughter of the sun god Ra.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

17) Consider the following and answer.
a. As per the Orders of the Supreme Court and the “Aravallis” are to be delineated in the entire NCR.
b. The Aravalli Range, is the oldest range of fold mountains in India.
c. The Delhi Ridge is the northernmost end of the Aravalli range, which begins in Central Delhi at Raisina hill.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

18) Consider the following and answer.
a. National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) under the Cabinet Secretary oversees the Command, Control and Coordination of the disaster response.
b. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister is the apex body responsible for laying down policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

19) With respect to International Solar Alliance (ISA), consider the following anda answer.
a. ISA will become a treaty-based international intergovernmental organization.
b. The ISA, headquartered in India, has its Secretariat located in the campus of National Institute of Solar Energy, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
[A] 1 Only
[B] 2 Only
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 nor 2
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

20) Consider the following with reference to ‘Flink’ (functional living ink) and answer.
a. It is an 3D-printable ink that contains bacteria.
b. It is composed of a hydrogel mixed with both bacteria and the nutrients required to keep that bacteria alive.
c. It can be 3D-printed into nearly any shape, but the challenge was finding the right texture.
Choose the correct code
a) 1,2 only
B) 2,3 ONLY
c) 1,3 only
d) All the Above
Refer “The Hindu”- 5/12/17

“EDITORIAL MADE SIMPLE – 4th December 17 – A misleading hunger index”

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A misleading hunger index

In its calculations, the Global Hunger Index assigns a disproportionate value to child undernourishment:

• Per capita food production in India has increased by 26% (2004-05 to 2013-14), while it has doubled in the last 50 years.
• While this kind of growth rate in food production is expected to reduce hunger significantly over time, yet
• The Global Hunger Index (GHI) prepared by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), shows India’s hunger level in very poor light.

A closer look:

• The 2017 GHI score has India ranked 100 out of the 119 countries listed.
• A casual reading would create the impression of India being among the worst performers and underachievers in addressing food and nutrition security.
• In reality it is neither appropriate nor representative of hunger prevalent in a country.
• However, despite improvements, India still faces a problem of undernourishment and poor child health.

Parameters for calculation:

• However, despite improvements, India still faces a problem of undernourishment and poor child health.
o the percentage of population that is undernourished.
o percentage of children under five years who suffer from wasting
o percentage of children under five who suffer from stunting
o child mortality.
• Undernourishment and child mortality each make up a third of the GHI score.
• Child stunting and child wasting make up a sixth of the score, and together make up a third of the score.

Ground impact:

• Three of the four indicators, refer only to children below five who constitute only 11.5% of India’s population.
• Further, the percentage of the undernourished population is inclusive of undernutrition among children.
• This way, the GHI assigns 70.5% weightage to children below five who constitute only a minor population share and 29.5% weightage to the population above five, which constitutes 81.5% of the total population.
• Therefore, the term “Hunger Index” is highly biased towards undernutrition of children rather than representing the status of hunger in the overall population.
• It would be more appropriate to term the conceptualisation and composition of this composite index as a “Global Hunger and Child Health Index” than as a “Global Hunger Index”.
• Evidence shows that weight and height of children are not solely determined by food intake.
• It an outcome of a complex interaction of factors related to genetics, the environment, sanitation and utilisation of food intake.
• The IFPRI acknowledges that only 45% of child mortality is due to hunger or undernutrition.
Without undermining the need for improvement in reducing wasting, stunting and mortality of children, our calculations show that if child health indicators are not included in the GHI, India will move to the 77th spot.
India’s ranking in terms of child mortality, child stunting and child wasting is 80, 106 and 117, respectively.

Calculating hunger:

• The incidence of hunger is taken as the proportion of the population whose food intake provides less than its minimum energy requirements.
• There is still inconclusive debate on the cut-off for minimum energy requirement calculation.
• At a global level, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) has an average norm of 1,800 kcal.
• But in India, the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR-NIN) specified average norm of 2,400 kcal for rural areas and 2,100 kcal for urban areas.
• There is a strong case to revise the ICMR-NIN norms as the actual requirement of energy is decreasing due to a shift towards mechanisation and more congenial work conditions and environment.
• The unit-level National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) data on Household Consumption Expenditure for the latest year (2011-12) indicate that 72% of India’s population consumed less food than required to meet the calorie norm specified by ICMR-NIN.
• This shows that either the ICMR-NIN norm is on the higher side or these people voluntarily chose to eat less than what the ICMR-NIN considers normative.
• If we apply the FAO norm to the household consumption data of the NSSO, the proportion of the population with calorific deficit was 37.32% in 2004-05 and 29.55% in 2011-12.
• On the other hand, the FAO’s State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World report has placed the incidence of undernourishment in India at 20.9% for 2004-06 and 17.5% for 2010-12.
• The FAO norm applied to NSSO data on Household Consumer Expenditure indicates that in 2011-12, about 30% of India was undernourished or suffered from hunger, as per the UN definition of hunger.
To avoid confusion about the status of hunger and undernourishment, India should regularly prepare and publish official estimates of hunger, like that of poverty. It will also help in tackling hunger.

“EDITORIAL MADE SIMPLE – 1st DEC 17 – Net Neutrality”

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Net Neutrality

Guidelines in favour :

• The TRAI has finally came out with clear guidelines in favour of Net neutrality that are consistent with its earlier stand on Facebook’s Free Basics proposal
• After consultation papers issued recently, the regulator reiterated that there cannot be discriminatory treatment of websites on the Internet by service providers

TRAI’s Stand:

• In particular, TRAI warned providers against the practice of blocking certain websites and tinkering with content speeds
• This means that service providers such as telecom companies cannot stand in the way of a consumer’s access to content that would otherwise be provided to her without any undue hindrance
• They cannot charge consumers for access to certain content, or receive payment from websites promising greater promotion of their product over the rest
Exceptions
• TRAI has been careful to allow some exceptions that allow companies to discriminate between content if it helps them regulate the flow of traffic or offer “specialised services”

Challenges:

• While TRAI’s new guidelines will help the cause of building the Internet as a public platform with open access to all, the concerns of service providers should not be dismissed altogether
• The Internet has spread all over the world, so widely that many believe it is now an essential good
• But the infrastructure that serves as the backbone of the Internet has not come without huge investments by private service providers
• The Internet has spread all over the world, so widely that many believe it is now an essential good
• But the infrastructure that serves as the backbone of the Internet has not come without huge investments by private service providers
• So any regulation that severely restricts the ability of companies to earn sufficient returns on investment will only come at the cost of the welfare of the public

Way Forward:

• TRAI has been open to adopting a nuanced view that differentiates between various forms of content instead of imposing a blanket ban on all forms of price differentiation
• The new policy will still allow companies to justify the costs incurred in providing niche content to consumers
• At the same time, TRAI’s measured response is likely to effectively address the problem of anti-competitive practices adopted by certain providers.