|INTERVIEW DATE 27 APRIL 2017
BOARD- AIR MARSHAL AJIT BONSLE
|Like Chennai Floods, Urban Floods Are Common, Tell Me The Mitigation Strategies Before, During, After The Floods|
|1. What Is Bay Of Bengal Initiative, Explain About BIMSTEC And Its Importance|
|2. How The BIMSTEC Can Replace SAARC|
|3. What Will Be The Future Of BRICS|
|4. Do We Need To Increase The Number Of Police Or Smartness Of Police|
|5. How The Non-Vegetarians Contribute More To The Climate Change Than The Vegetarians|
|Member -2 ( He Is A Tamil Person Asked Questions In Tamil)|
|1. Since Ur Hobby Is Writting Tamil Poems, Tell Me In What Themes You Wrote Poems|
|2. Say One Of Ur Favourite Poem Written By You And Translate In To English And Explain|
|3. He Said A Poem And Asked Me To Explain That In Tamil And Translate And Explain In English|
|4. What Happened In RK NAGAR Election And Why Is Has Been Suspended|
|5. What Is Ur Opinion From The Suspension Of RK NAGAR Election|
|(Asked Question From Of SERVICE IRAS)|
|1. Tell Me The Recent Changes In The Account System Of Railways|
|2. What Is Accruel Accounting System How It Is Different From Cash Based Accounting System|
|3. Who Is CAG And What Is His Role|
|4. Does The Railway Has Any Auditing System|
|5. What Is The Different Between CAG Audit And Railway Audit|
|6. What Is IRFC|
|7. What Is The Function Of IRFC|
|Member -4 ( Lady Member)|
|1. In Continuation Of My Poems Meaning She Compared It With Greek And Latin Literature And Asked People Prefer Peace And Contenment Or Waiting And Searching|
|2. How The Liberalisation Affected The Peace And Contentment Of People|
|3. Tell Me About Telugu GANGAI Scheme And Why Always Tamil People Fighting With Neighbours For Water ( Hobby Creating Awareness About Rainwater Harvesting)|
|Followed Some Sub Questions|
|In Srilankan Fishermen Issue What Is The Environmental Prob Involved..|
|Thank You.. Your Interview Is Over..|
- POLITY AND GOVERNANCE PAGE NO
- Indian Navy successfully test fires Barak missile from INS Vikramaditya 01
- Recommendations of Law Commission against Hate Speech 02
- Government approves Shekatkar Committee recommendations to reform military 02
- Government launches Online Film Certification System 03
- Parliament Passes Mental Health Bill, 2016 04
- Uttarakhand HC recognise Ganga and Yamuna Rivers as living entity 06
- RajyaSabha passes HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2014 07
- Union Cabinet approves amendment to RTE Act, 2009 08
- Government to enact law to enforce dam safety regulations 09
- Government to wind up 8 tribunals 10
- Government approves re-organisation of field formations of CEBC for GST 11
- Odisha becomes first state to adopt SHG based financial inclusion model 12
- India becomes net exporter of power for the first time 13
- LokSabha passes 4 GST Bills 14
- National Health Policy, 2017 15
16. CCEA approves North East Road Network Connectivity Project Phase I 16
III. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT
- SC bans sale, registration of BS-III vehicles 17
- Earth Hour observed across the World 18
- Uttarakhand High Court orders completed ban of mining in state 19
- NGT suspends Green nod for Neutrino project 20
- Assam Government launches SaCReD initiative to make Majuli carbon neutral island 22
- Sea ice hits record winter low at both poles: Scientists 22
- SCIENCE AND TECH
- Scientists switch on the world’s largest artificial sun 24
- 4 ISRO teams join 36th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica 24
- Scientists discover five new sub-atomic particles at CERN 25
- SCIENCE AND TECH
- Cabinet approves MoU between India and US in field of Cyber Security 26
POLITY AND GOVERNANCE
- Indian Navy successfully test fires Barak missile from INS Vikramaditya
Qs: Explain major threats and India’s role in maritime security in the Indian Ocean.
Indian Navy successfully conducted maiden test of short range surface-to-air Barak missile from country’s sole aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya. The test was conducted in the Arabian Sea in which missile was fired against a live, low-flying, high-speed target. The missile successfully engaged and destroyed the target, validating operational readiness inspection of the Western Fleet of the Indian Navy.
About INS Vikramaditya
INS Vikramaditya is the country’s sole aircraft carrier (after retirement of INS Viraat in March 2017). It was built in 1987 and had served the Soviet navy (named as Baku). It was later renamed Admiral Gorshkov under the Russian navy. The Indian navy purchased the vessel in 2004 and commissioned it in November 2013 at Severodvinsk in Russia. The Kiev-class vessel weighs 44,500 tonne. Its overall length is 284 meters and has maximum beam of about 60 meters It can carry over 30 aircraft comprising MiG-29Ks, Kamov-28s, Kamov-31s, ALH-Dhruv and Chetak helicopters. It was retrofitted with a Barak missile system under joint development with Israel.
- Recommendations of Law Commission against Hate Speech
The Law Commission of India (LCI) in its 267th Report has laid out that bare the danger of hate speech to the Union Government and called for action from the government and Parliament. It held that hate speech has the potential to provoke individuals and society to commit acts of genocides, terrorism and ethnic cleansing. The Supreme Court of India in 2014 had referred to the Law Commission for means to arm the Election Commission to crack down on hate speech.
In its report, the commission has cautioned the government that hate speech is considered outside the realm of protective discourse and has urged for the expansion of the penal law against hate crimes. It held that indisputably, offensive hate speech has real and devastating effects on people’s lives and risks their health and safety. It is also harmful and divisive for communities and hampers social progress. If left unchecked, it can severely affect right to life of every individual.
Law against Hate Speech
The commission also has drafted a new law The Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill, 2017 by inserting new Sections to fortify democracy against hate speeches. The law defined hate speech as any word written or spoken, signs, visible representations within the hearing or sight of a person with the intention to cause fear or alarm, or incitement to violence. Its Section 153C penalises incitement to hatred and Section 505A for the first time makes ‘causing fear, alarm, or provocation of violence in certain cases’ a specific criminal offence. Section 153C calls for punishing guilty person with two years’ imprisonment or Rs. 5,000 in fine or both. Section 505A provides a punishment of one year imprisonment or Rs. 5,000 in fine or both.
- Government approves Shekatkar Committee recommendations to reform military
The Union Defence Ministry has approved most of the proposals of a committee of experts, headed by Lt. Gen. D.B. Shekatkar (Retd) to bring host of reforms in the military and improve financial management. Around 90 recommendations have been of the committee were approved. Most of these recommendations are measures to increase coordination among the three Services and cut down flab in Army to make it lean and agile.
Some recommendations of Committee
Capital expenditure: Roll-on defence budget must have enough capital expenditure available for modernisation. It must be against the present practice of surrendering unspent capital budget at the end of each financial year.
Performance audit: It must be conducted of non-combat organisations under the Defence Ministry. It must include those dealing with defence estates and accounts, Director- General of Quality Assurance, Ordnance Factory Board (OFB), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and National Cadet Corps (NCC).
Downsizing or rationalisation of manpower: It will lead to significant savings.
Joint services war college: It must be established for training middle-level officers.
Reduce deployment of active-duty soldiers in avoidable postings: They will be replaced by retired officers and jawans in the running of NCC.
Comprehensive reforms in the running of NCC: Transfer of NCC out of the Defence Ministry to the HRD Ministry: NCC can be run by re-employed or on-contract ex-service personnel.
If recommendations of committee are implemented over the next five years, government can save up to Rs. 25,000 crore from the current defence expenditure.
- Government launches Online Film Certification System
QS:Do you think the Central Board of Film Certification’s (CBFC) decision to not to issue certificate to certain movies is an assault on artistic freedom? In your opinion, how should the Indian society react to censorships by CBFC? Critically comment.
The Union Information and Broadcasting Ministry has launched the e-Cinepramaan, an online film certification system of the Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC). This initiative was launched on the lines of Union Government’s vision of ease-of-doing business and digital India, to make the entire process transparent and efficient. Its objective is to eliminate the need for human interface to the extent possible and enable good governance by automating film certification process.
Features of e-Cinepramaan
The system will show status of each application online in the dashboard of the producer and concerned CBFC official. Producers of short films/promos/trailers less than 10 minutes can submit their creations online for examination purposes without need to not visit CBFC Office/Theatre. In case of films longer than 10 minutes, the producer/applicant will only have to show the film at the Examining theatre. He will not have to visit the CBFC Offices at all except to collect their certificates. The producer/applicant will be informed status of their application by SMS/e-mail. It will also inform any action needed and provide receipt of application to the certificate collection. It will bring transparency in the system by eliminating middle men. It will mitigate chances of any corruption and avoid allegations of jumping the queue or rigging up of Examination committees. Under it, QR code on the certificates will be implemented to eliminate chances of fraudulent certificates. The system also envisages a robust MIS system for performance tracking and efficient reporting. It has inbuilt alerts depending on the pendency of application to ensure that time limits prescribed by the Rules. It will be an important step in making the CBFC office paperless and will enable effective monitoring and real-time progress tracking for both the CBFC officials and the applicants.
Parliament Passes Mental Health Bill, 2016
Qs:Analyse the important provisions of the Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 and the implementation challenges this Bill might face.
The Parliament has passed the Mental Healthcare Bill, 2016 that decriminalises suicide attempt by mentally ill people and guarantees the right to better healthcare for people with mental illness. It was first passed in RajyaSabha in August 2016 and later in LokSabha in March 2017. Now it will go to president for assent.
Key Features of Bill
Rights of persons with mental illness: It gives every person right to access mental healthcare from services operated or funded by the government. It also includes good quality, easy and affordable access to services. It also provides right to equality of treatment, protect such persons from inhuman treatment, access to free legal services, medical records and right to complain in case of deficiencies in provisions.
Advance Directive: It empowers a mentally-ill person to have the right to make an advance directive that explains how they want to be treated for the requisite illness and nominate their representative.
Mental Health Establishments: Every mental health establishment must register with the respective Central or State Mental Health Authority. For registration, the concerned establishment must fulfill different criteria as mentioned in the Bill.
Procedure and process: It also outlines the procedure and process for admission, treatment and subsequent discharge of mentally ill persons.
Community based treatment: It focuses on community based treatment and special provisions for women and health.
Mental Health Review Commission and Board: It will be quasi-judicial body responsible for reviewing procedure for making advance directives. It will advise the government on the protection of rights of mentally ill persons’. It will constitute Mental Health Review Boards in states’ districts will help of state governments.
Decriminalising suicide: It effectively decriminalises suicide attempt under the section 309 (attempt to commit suicide) of Indian Penal Code (IPC) by mentally ill persons by making it non-punishable
Prohibits electro-convulsive therapy: It will be not used for minors. It will be allowed only with the use of anaesthesia.
The Bill is the first mental health law framed as per the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to which India is signatory. It requires the countries to align their laws with the Convention. The Bill provides “rights-based” approach to mental illness by consolidating and safeguarding the rights of fundamental human rights of the patients. In India, around 6 to 7% of the population suffers from some kind of mental illnesses, while 1 to 2% suffers from acute mental disease.
Uttarakhand HC recognise Ganga and Yamuna Rivers as living entity
The Uttarakhand High Court has recognized the Ganga and Yamuna Rivers as so-called living entities. It is for the first time any court in India has recognized a non-human as a living entity. The two rivers are sacred for the Hindus, sustain millions of people in the country but have seen years of damage at the hands of humans. The HC Division Bench comprising Justice Alok Singh and Justice Rajiv Sharma gave a landmark judgment while hearing a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) petition filed by one Mohammad Salim in 2014.
Uttarakhand HC verdict
Ganga and Yamuna, all their tributaries, streams are declared as legal persons [or] living persons in order to protect the recognition and the faith of society. They will have the status of a legal person with all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person in order to preserve and conserve them. State government failed to fulfil its responsibility regarding the rivers. Central government must constitute Ganga Management Board to look into the issue of cleaning and maintaining these rivers. The Director, NamamiGange project and the Chief Secretary and the Advocate General of Uttarakhand have been charged to protect, conserve and preserve the rivers and their tributaries.
What does it means?
In India, animals, for instance, are not considered living entities by law. Only humans are. But recognizing these rivers as a living entity, grants them new legal identity and all rights laid out in the Constitution of India. Thus, they have the right to be legally protected and not be harmed and destroyed. They also can be parties to disputes as their rights can be used to protect the interests of the rivers. It also means that if someone pollutes these rivers, the law will see it equal to harming a human being.
Earlier in March 2017, New Zealand Parliament passed a bill declaring 145km long Whanganui River as ‘legal person’, making it first river to get this status. Ecuador was first country to recognize Rights of Nature in its Constitution adopted in September 2008. The new Ecuadorian Constitution includes a Chapter: Rights for Nature.
- RajyaSabha passes HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2014
Qs:Recently the union cabinet approved amendments to the HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2014. Critically comment on these amendments
The RajyaSabha has passed HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2014. The Bill seeks to safeguard the rights of people living with HIV and affected by HIV. It aims to prevent social stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV (PLHIV). It also seeks to strengthen legal accountability and establish formal mechanisms for inquiring into complaints and redressing grievances to probe discrimination complaints against those who discriminate against PLHIV.
Salient Features of Bill
Prevention and control the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It prohibits discrimination against persons with HIV and AIDS. No person will be compelled to disclose his HIV status except with his informed consent, and if required by a court order Establishments keeping records of information of PLHIV must adopt data protection measures. Obligations on establishments to safeguard rights of persons living with HIV arid create mechanisms for redressing complaints. Lists various grounds on which discrimination against HIV-positive persons and those living with them is prohibited. These include the denial, discontinuation, termination or unfair treatment with regard to employment, educational establishments, health care services, renting property etc. Prohibits, requirement for HIV testing as a pre-requisite for obtaining employment or accessing health care or education.Prohibits any individual from publishing information or advocating feelings of hatred against HIV positive persons and PLHIV.
There are approximately 21 lakh persons estimated to be living with HIV in India, the third highest number after South Africa and Nigeria. Currently, HIV is more prevalent in high-risk groups like female sex workers, homosexuals and drug addicts. The prevalence of HIV is decreasing over the last decade but percentage of PLHIV receiving Anti-Retroviral therapy (ART) treatment are merely 28.82% against global percentage of 41%.
- Union Cabinet approves amendment to RTE Act, 2009
The Union Cabinet has approved the amendment to Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009. The amendment seeks to ensure all teachers, in position as on March 2015, acquire minimum qualifications prescribed by academic authority to extend period for such training for 4 years up to March 2019.
The RTE Act, 2009 envisages free and compulsory elementary education to every child in the age group of 6-14 years. The section 23(2) of the Act specifies that all teachers at elementary level at commencement of this law if did not possess minimum qualifications under it need to acquire these within a period of five years i.e. by March 2015. However, several state governments have reported that 11.00 lakh teachers at the elementary level are still untrained out of a total number of 66.41 lakh teachers. Thus, to ensure that all teachers acquire the minimum qualifications prescribed by the academic authority, it is deemed necessary to carry out appropriate amendment in the RTE Act, 2009 to extend period for such training for four years up to March 2019.
Benefits of Amendments
It will enable the in-service untrained elementary teachers to complete their training and ensure that all teachers at the elementary level have a certain minimum standard of qualifications. It will ensure that all teachers attain minimum qualifications as considered necessary to maintain the standard of teaching quality. It will ultimately result in improvement in overall quality of teachers, teaching processes and learning outcomes of children. It will reinforce the Government’s emphasis on improvement of quality of elementary education.
- Government to enact law to enforce dam safety regulations
The Union Water Resources Ministry has drafted new dam safety bill to contemplate an institutional mechanism to improve safety of around 5300-odd dams across in India. The new law has been vetted by the Union Law Ministry. It will now go to the Union Cabinet for approval and its introduction in Parliament.
Need for such law
There are around 4900 large dams in India and several thousand smaller ones. However, large reservoirs and water storage structures, in the past few decades, are not seen as a model of safety. The failure of these dams due to lack of safety could cause massive disaster such as the 1979 Machchu dam failure in Morbi, Gujarat, in which estimated 25,000 people were killed. Recent analysis of the state of India’s dams also has found that half of them did not meet contemporary safety standards. So there is need of much stricter safety criteria.
Currently, dam safety guidelines are not effectively enforced by the States. The dam safety bill, proposes a Central authority and State-level bodies that will enforce regulation. It proposes safety criteria including increasing the spillway (a design structure to ease water build-up) and preventing ‘over-topping’ in which the dam overflows and causes it to fail. It also proposes fine on dam and project proponents in the fall short, though they are unlikely to face imprisonment.
- Government to wind up 8 tribunals
Qs:Discuss the issue of “tribunalisation” of courts in India. Do you think it is a good development? Critically examine
The LokSabha has approved amendments to The Finance Bill, 2017 proposed by the Union Government to wind up eight tribunals These eight tribunals currently exclusively deal with disputes pertaining to employees’ provident fund (EPF), Competition law, Airports economic regulation, IT law, National highways, railways, copyrights and Forex. The amendments in the Finance Bill of 2017 also has proposed changes in the norms for tribunals, appellate tribunals and other boards associated with the administration of 17 central laws.
8 major tribunals that will cease to operate are
Competition Appellate Tribunal: Its work now has will be transferred to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal.
Airports Economic Regulatory Authority Appellate Tribunal (AERAAT) and Cyber AppellateTribunal: Their functions will now be discharged by the Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT).
EPF Appellate Tribunal: Its works will be transferred to the Industrial Tribunal that examines matters under the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947.
Cases under the Foreign Exchange Management Act of 1999: They will be transferred to Appellate Tribunal constituted under Smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act, 1976.
National Highways Tribunal: Now Highway disputes will now be adjudicated by the Airport Appellate Tribunal set up under the Airport Authority of India (AAI) Act,1994.
Railways Rates Tribunal: It was established for hearing matters under the Railways Act, 1989. Its workload will be transferred to the Railway Claims Tribunal.
Copyright Board: It was responsible for enforcing of the Copyright Act of 1957. Now it will be transferred to the Intellectual Property Appellate Board set up under the Trademarks Act of 1999.
- Government approves re-organisation of field formations of CEBC to implement GST
The Union Finance Minister has approved re-organisation of field formations of the Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBEC) for the implementation of Goods & Services Tax (GST). Under it, CBEC will be renamed as the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) after getting required legislative approval.
The existing formations of Central Excise & Service Tax under the CBEC will be re-organised to implement and enforce the provisions of the proposed GST Laws. The proposed CBIC will supervise the work of all its field formations and Directorates and assist the Government in policy making in relation to GST, continuing Central Excise levy & Customs functions. The CBIC will have 21 Zones, 101 GST Tax payer Services Commissionerates comprising 15 sub-Commissionerates, 768 Divisions, 3969 Ranges, 49 Audit and 50 Appeals Commissionerates. It will ensure rendering of taxpayer services to all the taxpayers through an indirect tax administration structure by having pan-India presence. For a robust IT Network, the Directorate General of Systems under CBEC will be expanded for greater out- reach for facilitating smooth transition for the taxpayers to the GST environment. The existing training establishment will be renamed as National Academy of Customs, Indirect Taxes and Narcotics (NACITN) and shall have an all India presence. It will enable capacity building to the employees of the indirect tax administration of the Centre as well as of the State Governments and also of Trade and Industry. The renamed Directorate General of Goods & Service Tax Intelligence will be also strengthened and expanded to become an important wing of the Government in its fight against Tax Evasion and Black Money.
- Odisha becomes first state to adopt SHG based financial inclusion model
Odisha became the first state in the country to adopt Self Help Groups (SHG) based model for financial inclusion model to extend banking services in the unbanked areas through SGHs. In this regard, state government has inked agreement with the State Bank of India (SBI). The SHGs formed under the Odisha Livelihood Mission (OLM) will be eligible to provide banking services.
The agreement assumes significant as 70% of the gram panchayats in the State do not have brick and mortar bank branches. As per the agreement, OLM will function as corporate agent and around 3 lakh SHGs operating under it will be the banking correspondents (BCs). In the first phase SHGs will be engaged as BCs in around 1000 remote GPs in scheduled areas having no banking facilities. Gradually in later phases, it will be extended to 4000 non-banked GPs. Subsequently entire State will be covered under the financial inclusion programme.
About Odisha Livelihoods Mission (OLM)
Odisha Livelihoods Mission (OLM) an autonomous society of Department of Panchayati Raj of the state government. It commenced its operations in 2012. It is successor of Orissa Poverty Reduction Mission (OPRM) launched in 2006 to implement various poverty reduction programmes in the state. OLM presently is implementing both National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM) and National Rural Livelihoods Project. Odisha was the first state in the country to launch NRLM in its bid to bring down rural poverty by promoting diversified and gainful self-employment to the rural poor. OLM aims at: (i) Mobilizing all poor households into functionally effective SHGs and their federations (ii) Enhancing their access to bank credit and other financial, marketing and technical services (iii) Building their capacities and skills for sustainable and gainful livelihoods development; (iii) Converging various schemes for efficient delivery of economic and social support services to poor with optimal results.
- India becomes net exporter of power for the first time
According to Central Electricity Authority (CEA), under Union Power Ministry, India for the first time has become a net exporter of electricity during the April-February period in fiscal 2016-17. During this period, India exported around 5,798 million units of electricity to Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar. It is 213 million units more than the import of around 5,585 million units from Bhutan.
In the last three years, India’s export to Nepal and Bangladesh has increased 2.5 and 2.8 times respectively. New transmission lines with Bangladesh and Myanmar has helped India sell more power. India’s power export to Nepal: India is exporting around 190 MW power to Nepal over 12 cross border interconnections at 11kV, 33kV and 132 kV level. It has further increased by around 145 MW after commissioning of Muzaffarpur (India)–Dhalkhebar (Nepal) 400kV line (being operated at 132 kV) in 2016. It is further expected to increase by around 145 MW shortly over 132 kV Katiya (Bihar)–Kusaha (Nepal) and 132 kV Raxaul (Bihar)– Parwanipur (Nepal). India’s power export to Bangladesh: At present, India has exported around 600 MW power to Bangladesh. The export got further boost after commissioning of the first cross border interconnection between Baharampur (India) and Bheramara (Bangladesh) at 400kV in September 2013. It was further augmented by commissioning of second cross border Interconnection between Surjyamaninagar (Tripura) in India and South Comilla (Bangladesh). India’s power import from Bhutan: On an average, Bhutan has been supplying around 5,000-5,500 million units to India. A few more cross border links are in the pipeline with neighbouring countries which would further increase India’s power export.
Ever since the cross border trade of electricity started in mid-1980s, India has been importing power from Bhutan and marginally exporting to Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar. India is also investing heavily on generation infrastructure over the past few years. In the past two years, a massive surge in the local supply of raw materials like coal has also helped power companies to boost output.
About Central Electricity Authority (CEA)
The CEA is a statutory organisation constituted under section 3(1) of Electricity Supply Act 1948. Now, it has been superseded by section 70(1) of the Electricity Act 2003. It advises the government on matters relating to the National Electricity Policy (NEP) and formulates short-term and perspective plans for the development of electricity systems. It is the designated authority for cross border trade of electricity. It also prescribes the standards on matters such as construction of electrical plants, electric lines and connectivity to the grid, safety and grid standards and installation and operation of meters. It is also responsible for concurrence of hydro power development schemes of central, state and private sectors for efficient development of river and its tributaries for power generation.
LokSabha passes 4 GST Bills
LokSabha has passed four Bills relating to the implementation of the Goods and Services Tax (GST). It paves way for implementing a new, consolidated indirect tax regime from the proposed date of July 1, 2017. The four bills passed were Central GST Bill, Integrated GST Bill, GST Compensation Bill, and the Union Territory GST Bill, 2017. These Bills were passed as Money Bills, thus eliminates the role of RajyaSabha.
The tax rates under GST regime will be based on the recommendation GST Council. Council has two-thirds voting by States and one-third by Centre. The GST laws passed by Parliament will not apply to Jammu and Kashmir, as it will have to legislate its own law and integrate with the GST regime. There will be no single rate under GST as it will be not possible and it will be highly regressive. So The GST Council has recommended a four-tier tax structure 5, 12, 18 and 28%. On top of the highest slab (28%), a cess will be imposed on luxury and demerit goods to compensate the states for revenue loss for five years. Essential food articles will not taxed and those will continue to be zero rated under the GST. All other commodities will be fitted into the nearest tax bracket. The fifth GST legislation, the State GST Bill, needs to be separately passed by the respective legislative assemblies of each of the States and Union Territories with legislature.
GST is touted as the biggest taxation reform since independence. It will subsume indirect taxes such as central excise, service tax, VAT and other local levies to create an uniform market. GST regime is expected to boost GDP growth by about 2% and check tax evasion. It will make commodities “slightly cheaper” and exports more competitive. It will also improve tax compliance and ensure that assessees get input credit of the taxes paid
- National Health Policy, 2017:
The Union Union Cabinet approved the National Health Policy 2017. It will replace the previous policy which was framed 15 years ago in 2002. It aims at providing healthcare in an “assured manner” to all by addressing current and emerging challenges arising from the ever changing socio-economic, epidemiological and technological scenarios.
Highlights of National Health Policy, 2017
It aims to raise public healthcare expenditure to 2.5% of GDP from current 1.4%, with more than two-thirds of those resources going towards primary healthcare. It envisages providing a larger package of assured comprehensive primary healthcare through the ‘Health and Wellness Centers’. It is a comprehensive package that will include care for major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), geriatric healthcare, mental health, palliative care and rehabilitative care services. It proposes free diagnostics, free drugs and free emergency and essential healthcare services in all public hospitals in order to provide healthcare access and financial protection. It seeks to establish regular tracking of disability adjusted life years (DALY) Index as a measure of burden of disease and its major categories trends by 2022. It aims to improve and strengthen the regulatory environment by putting in place systems for setting standards and ensuring quality of healthcare. It also looks at reforms in the existing regulatory systems both for easing drugs and devices manufacturing to promote Make in India and also reforming medical education. It advocates development of mid-level service providers, public health cadre, nurse practitioners to improve availability of appropriate health human resource.
Targets: It aims to ensure availability of 2 beds per 1000 population to enable access within golden hour. It proposes to increase life expectancy from 67.5 to 70 years by 2025. It aims to reduce total fertility rate (TFR) to 2.1 at sub-national and national level by 2025. It also aims to reduce mortality rate (MR) of children under 5 years of age to 23 per 1000 by 2025 and maternal mortality rate (MMR) to 100 by 2020. It also aims to reduce infant mortality rate to 28 by 2019 and reduce neo-natal mortality to 16 and still birth rate to ‘single digit’ by 2025.
- CCEA approves North East Road Network Connectivity Project Phase I
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has approved North East Road Network Connectivity Project (NERNCP) Phase I for development of 403 kms of National Highways in Meghalaya and Mizoram. Out of total 403 km, approximately 351 km will be in developed in Mizoram and 52 km in Meghalaya. The project will be executed in EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) Mode.
The implementation of projects will start from the financial year 2017-18. The civil works are expected to be completed by 2021 and maintenance works by 2025. The projects will encourage sub-regional socio-economic development by improving infrastructure in Mizoram and Meghalaya. It will also enhance connectivity with inter-state roads and International Borders. The work for development of two lane standards under the scheme NERNCP Phase I will be financially supported by loan assistance from Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
The existing carriageway of all the stretches in Meghalaya and Mizoram are varying between Single lane to Intermediate lane. The condition of the pavement is also very poor and at some locations which is not in traffic worthy condition. In addition, these stretches also are in poor condition in the landslides areas/sinking zone. The development and updation of these stretches to the two lane will improve their standards and improve connectivity.
- SC bans sale, registration of BS-III vehicles
The Supreme Court has banned the sale and registration of Bharat Stage (BS)-III emission norm-compliant vehicles from April 1, 2017, when environmentally friendly BS-IV emission norms will come into force across the country. The order came after all vehicle manufacturers including their association -Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) approached SC to stop the ban till existing stock is sold.
The SC bench held that health of the citizen is more important than the commercial interests of the automobile industry. All the vehicle registering authorities under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 are prohibited from registering such vehicles on and from April 1, 2017 that do not meet BS-IV emission standards. Vehicles that have already been sold on or before March 31, 2017 will be not included in this ban. From 1 April 2017, BS-IV fuel emission standards will kick in and all new vehicles have to comply it.
What are manufacturers saying?
Vehicle manufacturers have argued that they were entitled to make BS-III vehicles till March 31, 2017. So, the sale and registration of these vehicles should not be prohibited after April 1, 2017 with the introduction of BS-IV norms. They should further be given a reasonable time to dispose of their existing stock which is as about 820,000 vehicles (worth Rs 12,000-crore) most of them two-wheelers. Government also has favoured the prospect of selling the existent stock of BS-III vehicles, as it done twice before when fuel emission norms were upgraded to BS-II and BS-III, respectively.
Many vehicles including heavy commercial vehicles with BS-III built engines, employ a mechanical fuel pump and used fuel less efficiently. It negatively influences environment by subsequent emissions of nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and particulate matter.
How BS-IV engines cut emissions?
Passenger vehicles compliant with Bharat Stage-III emission norms vary widely from their Bharat Stage-IV compliant engines, depending on the size of the car and whether they are petrol or diesel versions. BS-IV compliant engines differ in the electronics, sensor system, and its ability to process low-sulphur fuel and their “after-exhaust” system that determines emissions. BS-IV engines also require that the sulphur content of the fuel they use be less than 50 part per million (ppm) whereas BS-III ones can run on 350 ppm fuel. The transition from BS-III to BS-IV will lead to substantial reductions in particulate matter emissions. For instance, from new trucks, the emissions dip by 80% and from cars by 50%. Similarly, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions can also drop between 41 and 80%, depending on the engine sizes.
Note: India also has set a deadline of 2020 to switch to BS-VI norms, by skipping stage V. This huge leap towards cleaner and environment friendly fuel, will include technology upgrade, making vehicles costly.
- Earth Hour observed across the World
The eleventh edition of the Earth Hour was observed across the world on 25 March 2017 to take a global call on climate change. To mark this day, cities worldwide turned their lights off from 8:30 pm to 9:30 pm local time. This year millions of people from some 170 countries and territories had taken part in the annual event in a bid to highlight global warming caused by the burning of coal, oil and natural gas to drive cars and power plants. Environmental activists this year also have focused to raise awareness on another problem that gets far less attention: Light Pollution.
About Earth Hour
Earth Hour is an annual international event organised by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The first Earth Hour was held on March 31, 2007 in Sydney, Australia. It is held annually in end of March month to encourage everyone to turn off their non-essential lights for one hour, from 8:30 to 9:30 p.m. The event encourages households and businesses to turn off their lights and electrical appliances for one hour at the appointed time to raise awareness about the need to take action on climate change. Its goal is to raise awareness for sustainable energy use and create a more environmentally sustainable lifestyle. Since its inception, it has become annual global environmental event (movement). Now it has grown to engage more than 7,000 cities and towns across 172 countries worldwide.
What is Light Pollution?
Light pollution is artificial brightening of the night sky caused by man-made lightening sources, which has a disruptive effect on natural cycles and inhibits the observation of stars and planets. It is also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution and basically is the misdirected or obtrusive of natural light by excessive artificial light. More than 80% of humanity lives under skies saturated with artificial light.
Components of light pollution
Glare: excessive brightness that causes visual discomfort. Skyglow: brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas. Clutter: bright, excessive and confusing groupings of light sources. Light trespass: light falling where it is not intended or needed.
Effects of Light Pollution
Disturbs the reproductive cycles of some animals.Disturbs migration of birds that navigate using the stars and to disorient night-flying insects. In humans, it disturbs circadian rhythms that regulate hormones and other bodily functions. Excessive blue light emitted form LEDs directly affects sleep pattern in Human by suppressing the production of the hormone melatonin, which mediates the sleep-wake cycle in humans.
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF): It is an international non-governmental organization (NGO) working in the field of the biodiversity conservation, and the reduction of humanity’s footprint on the environment.
- Uttarakhand High Court orders completed ban of mining in state
The Uttarakhand High Court has ordered a complete ban on all mining activities in the state for four months. The court gave this order while hearing on Public Interest Litigation (PIL). It comes after a forest guard was allegedly killed by illegal miners near Corbett National Park when he had tried to stop them.
The HC bench ordered the state government to constitute a high-powered committee to look into various aspects of mining activities and find out whether mining activity should be permitted in the state at all. The committee will also prepare a 50-year blueprint taking into consideration environment limits vis-a-vis mining operations and submit an interim report within four month. It will also assess the damage caused to the rivers, springs, rivulets and environment and ecology of Uttrakahnd by mining and determine compensation payable to the persons affected by mining activities. It will identify places to be earmarked for safe mining so that there would be no loss of revenue to the government and requirements of people can also meet at the same time. Till the committee submits its report, there shall be a complete ban on mining activities, including in forest areas, rivers, rivulets and streams. The HC held that Shivalik region of the Himalayas is further getting fragile by mining activities. Mining activities needs to be regulated by the state to ensure that no illegal mining is carried out. It directed state government not to grant any fresh licence/mining lease/prospecting licence, in any form till the final report is furnished by the high powered committee to this court.
The HC order will stop mining in interstate rivers such as Ganga, Yamuna and also nearly 100 seasonal rivers and rivulets on foothills of the state, apart from forest areas.
- NGT suspends Green nod for Neutrino project
The Southern Bench of the National Green Tribunal (NGT) suspended the Environmental Clearance (EC) granted to the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). It has asked the project proponent to make a fresh application. NGT suspended the EC after petitioner submitted that the INO project was just 4.5 km away from Mathikettan Shola National Park in Idukki district (Kerala) and one kilometre from Kerala-Tamil Nadu border and falls under category ‘A’ project in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).
What is the issue?
The Union Environment Ministry had categorised INO project as a Category ‘B’ project, for which an EIA is not necessary. But, as per EIA Notification, 2006, any project specified in category ‘B’ will be treated as category A, if it is located in whole or in part within 10 km from the boundary of protected areas notified under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and inter-State boundaries.
What NGT says?
INO is a category ‘A’ project, which meant EIA study has to be done by an accredited agency. Since the project was near a national park, INO needs to get a clearance from the National Board for Wildlife. It also needs to get necessary clearance from the Kerala government as well.
About India-Based Neutrino Observatory (INO)
It country’s most ambitious basic science project proposed to come up in Bodi west hills of Theni district of Tamil Nadu. It aims at building a world-class underground laboratory with a rock cover of approximately 1200 meter. Its mandate is to conduct basic research on the elementary particle called neutrino. It is jointly supported by Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Department of Science & Technology (DST), with DAE acting as the nodal agency. The observatory will be located underground in order to provide adequate shielding to the neutrino detector from cosmic background radiation. It will comprise a complex of caverns which will house detector which is 130 metres long, 26 metres wide and 30 metre high.
- Assam Government launches SaCReD initiative to make Majuli carbon neutral island
Assam Government launched Sustainable Action for Climate Resilient Development (SaCReD) Initiative to develop Majuli, the world’s largest river island, as the country’s first carbon neutral district. It was launched by state Chief Minister Chief Minister SarbanandaSonowal on the occasion of International Day of Forests (observed on March 21).
SaCReD Initiative will also ensure that infrastructure in Majuli has less carbon. It aims to battle climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The will also aim to make the Majul island a biodiversity heritage site (BHS), first in the state in order to preserve its rich heritage and legacy. State Government also launched registry in Majuli to record and analyse the climate impact of all proposed projects in the district. Forests are Lives campaign was also launched to underline the importance of Assam’s rich forest and biodiversity. It urges people to take a pledge to conserve its biodiversity to make the state pollution free.
About Majuli Island
Majuli island is fluvial riverine island is formed in the Brahmaputra river system. It is the world’s largest mid river delta (island) system. It is also India’s first river island. It is surrounded by Subanisri River in the North, main Brahmaputra River on the South and kherkatiaSuli, split channel of Brahmaputra River in northeast. Majuliisland is mostly inhabited by Mishing tribal people. It has been the hub of Assamese neo-Vaishnavite culture initiated by saint-reformer SrimantaSankardeva in 15th century. It had some 65 satras (monasteries adhering) to Vaishnavism. Large numbers of them were relocated to mainland after being washed away. Some surviving satras are Garamurh, Dakhinpat, Kamalabari, Auniati and Bengenaati. Majuliisland is a rich environmental hotspot harbouring. It is home of many rare and endangered avifauna species including migratory birds. Due to erosion of river-bank of the island it has shrunk from about 1250 sq km in 1891 to about 515 sq km.
- Sea ice hits record winter low at both poles: Scientists
According to US and European scientists, the extent of sea ice at both poles has hit new record lows for this time of the year. The disappearing sea ice comes as the Earth marks three consecutive years of record-breaking heat and temperature rise, raising fresh concerns about the accelerating pace of global warming.
Artic region: The ice floating in the Arctic Ocean grows and shrinks on a seasonal cycle every year, reaching its largest size in March and smallest at the end of the summer melt in September. But this year’s Arctic maximum spanned 14.42 million sq.km i.e. 95,829 sq.km below the previous record low in 2015. This year’s ice cover is 12,19,884 sq.km smaller compared to average sea ice extent for 1981-2010. The Arctic sea ice maximum has dropped by an average of 2.8% per decade since 1979. There was a lot of open ocean water and very slow ice growth because the water had a lot of accumulated.
Antartic region: The ice in the Antarctic also follows a seasonal cycle but its maximum comes in September and its minimum around February (summer in Southern Hemisphere). In the Antarctic, this year’s annual sea ice was 21,10,840 sq.km, about 1,83,889 sq.km below the previous lowest minimum extent in the satellite record, which occurred in 1997. For the past two years, Antarctica saw record high sea ice extents and decades of moderate sea ice growth.
- SCIENCE AND TECH
- Scientists switch on the world’s largest artificial sun
Scientists from the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) have switched on world’s largest artificial sun – a device developed to help shed light on new ways of making climate-friendly fuels. The artificial sun is giant honeycomb-like set-up of 149 spotlights, officially known as Synlight. It is located in Juelich. It uses xenon short-arc lamps normally found in cinemas to simulate natural sunlight.
The aim of Synlight experiment is to develop an optimal setup for concentrating natural sunlight to power a reaction to produce hydrogen fuel. Its goal is to eventually use actual sunlight rather than the artificial light produced using electricity which is costly and requires as much electricity in four hours as a four-person household would use in a year. Using the array, scientists are seeking to produce the equivalent of 10,000 times the amount of solar radiation by focusing the entire array on a single 8×8 in spot (20*20cm). When light from all the lamps is aligned to concentrate on a single spot, it can generate temperatures of around 3,500 degree Celsius i.e. temperature two to three times of a blast furnace.
Significance of this experiment
Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe, but on earth it is relatively rare. One way to manufacture hydrogen is to split water (H2O) into its two elemental components – Hydrogen and oxygen, using electricity in electrolysis process. Synlight experiment will bypass usage of electricity by tapping into the enormous amount of solar energy that reaches Earth from sun. Hydrogen obtained from it will be used to be used in fuel cells, a clean source of energy that does not produce carbon emissions.
4 ISRO teams join 36th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has joined the 36th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (36-ISEA) organised by the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR). It has send four teams-one team each from Space Applications Centre (SAC), National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) and and Space Physics Laboratory(SPL).
The main objective of this expedition is to install stakes on ice for Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) measurements around two Indian bases Bharati and Maitri in Antartica. It will validate glacier surface velocity derived from satellite data to estimate thickness of snow over land and sea ice using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR’s). It will also verify conditions of snow over sea and land ice. ISRO teams will also study of snow melt and freeze dynamics in Antarctica using space-based and ground-based observations. It will also study measurements of Atmospheric Black Carbon (BC), greenhouse gases and solar radiation fluxes at Antarctica on a long-term basis.
About Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA)
ISEA is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional program conducted every year by the Union Ministry of Earth Sciences. It was started in 1981. It has gained global acceptance after India signed Antarctic Treaty. Subsequently, India had constructed DakshinGangotri Antarctic research base in 1983. It was superseded by the Maitri base from 1990, India’s newest base in Antarctica, Bharati, was commissioned in 2015. It is constructed out of 134 shipping containers.
- Scientists discover five new sub-atomic particles at CERN
Scientists using Large Hadron Collider accelerator (LHC) at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research) have discovered a new system of five particles all in a single analysis. This discovery is unique as observing five new states all at once is very rare. According to the standard convention, these particle states were named Oc(3000)0, Oc(3050)0, Oc(3066)0, Oc(3090)0 b Oc(3119)0. The numbers indicate their masses in megaelectronvolts (MeV), measured by LHCb experiment, one of seven particle physics detector experiments collecting data at LHC, world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator.
The new particles were found to be in excited states (a particle state that has a higher energy than the ground state or absolute minimum configuration) of a particle called Omega-c-zero. Omega-c-zero is a baryon. It is a particle with three quarks, containing two strange and one charm quark. It decays via the strong force into another baryon, called Xi-c-plus (containing a “charm”, a “strange” and an “up” quark) and a kaon K-. Xi-c-plusparticle further decays in turn into a proton p, a kaon K- and a pion p+. LHCb collaboration by analysing trajectories and energy left in the detector by all the particles in this final configuration were able to trace back the initial event he decay of the Omega-c-zeroand its excited states. Now quantum numbers of these new particles, characteristic numbers used to identify the properties of a specific particle and their theoretical significance will be determined. Significance of the Discovery: It will contribute to understanding how the three constituent quarks are bound inside a baryon. It will also help to probe the correlation between quarks, which plays a key role in describing multi-quark states, such as tetraquarks and pentaquarks.
Baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark). Baryons and mesons belong to the hadron family of particles, which are the quark-based particles. The most familiar baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe.
- SCIENCE AND TECH
- Cabinet approves MoU between India and US in field of Cyber Security
The Union Cabinet has approved Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed between the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-ln) and the US Homeland Security Department on cooperation in the field of Cyber Security. The MoU was signed in January 2017 in New Delhi. It intends to promote closer co-operation and exchange of information pertaining to the Cyber Security between both strategic partners in accordance with the relevant laws, rules and regulations and on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and reciprocity.
About CERT-In (Indian Computer Emergency Response Team)
CERT-In is a government-mandated nodal agency for information technology (IT) security established in 2004 under the aegis of the Indian Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Electronics and IT. According to the provisions of the IT Amendment Act, 2008, CERT-In is responsible for overseeing administration of the Act. CERT-In’s Mandate: Protect Indian cyberspace and software infrastructure against destructive and hacking activities. Respond to computer security incidents, report on vulnerabilities and promote effective IT security practices throughout the country. Issue guidelines, vulnerability notes, advisories, and whitepapers regarding to information security practices, prevention, procedures, response and reporting of cyber security incidents.
The Union Public Service Commission Conducts Exams for selection into IAS, IPS, IFS and other allied services. Here is the list of the UPSC Syllabus for UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains. Knowing the UPSC Syllabus is key to begin your preparation for UPSC Exam.
UPSC Syllabus – Preliminary Examination
UPSC Syllabus of Preliminary Exam consists of two compulsory papers of 200 marks each (Paper I and Paper II) and carries a maximum of 400 marks. The Preliminary Examination is meant to serve as a screening test only; the marks obtained in the Preliminary Examination by the candidate who is declared qualified for appearing in the Main Examination are not counted for final ranking; it is just for the qualification for Mains Exam.
UPSC Syllabus for Paper I of Prelims
- Current events of national and international importance.
- History of India and Indian National Movement.
- Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
- Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
- Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
- General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity, and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
- General Science.
UPSC Syllabus for Paper II of Prelims
- Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
- Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
- Decision-making and problem-solving.
- General mental ability.
- Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. – Class X level).
Don’t Miss: All about IAS exam
Note 1: The CSAT or Paper-II of the Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination will be a qualifying paper only with a minimum of 33% to be secured to sit for the Civil Services (Mains) Exam.
Note 2: The questions in both Paper-I (current affairs) and Paper-II (aptitude test) will be of multiple choice, objective type for 200 marks each and the time allotted for each paper is two hours.
Note 3: It is mandatory for the candidate to appear in both the papers of Civil Services (Prelim) Examination for the purpose of evaluation. Therefore a candidate will be disqualified in case he or she does not appear in both the papers of the (Prelims) Exam.
Read Also: Civil Service (IAS) Eligibility
UPSC Syllabus – Mains Examination
UPSC Syllabus of Main Examination consists of written examination and an interview test. The written examination consists of 9 papers of conventional essay type in the subjects out of which two papers are of qualifying in nature. Marks obtained in compulsory papers (Paper I to Paper VII) and in Interview for Personality Test are counted for ranking.
Candidates will be allocated to the various services keeping in view their ranks in the examination and the preference expressed by them for the various services and posts.
The written examination will consist of the following papers:-
Paper-A, Marks – 300
(One of the Indian Language to be selected by the candidate from the Languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution).
Paper-B, Marks – 300
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Papers to be counted for Merit
Paper-I, Marks – 250
Essay: Candidates may be required to write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep closely to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.
Paper-II, Marks – 250
General Studies – I: Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society.
- Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant
events, personalities, issues.
- The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different
parts of the country.
- Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
- History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redraw of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society.
- Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
- The role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
- Effects of globalization on Indian society
- Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
- Salient features of world’s physical geography.
- Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
- Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location- changes in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Also Read: Things to Keep in Mind While Choosing Optional Paper for IAS Exam
Paper – III, Marks – 250
General Studies- II: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.
- Indian Constitution – historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
- Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues, and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
- Separation of powers between various organs disputes redressal mechanisms and institutions.
- Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
- Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, a conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
- Structure, organization, and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary-Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
- Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
- Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions, and responsibilities of various
- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
- Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the
performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the
protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
- Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health,
Education, Human Resources.
- Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
- Important aspects of governance, transparency, and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
- The role of civil services in a democracy.
- India and its neighborhood- relations.
- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
- Important International institutions, agencies, and fora- their structure, mandate.
Paper-IV, Marks – 250
General Studies-III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.
- Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
- Government Budgeting.
- Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and
irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
- Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
- Food processing and related industries in India-scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
- Land reforms in India.
- Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
- Investment models.
- Science and Technology developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
- Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
- Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nanotechnology, biotechnology and
issues relating to intellectual property rights.
- Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
- Disaster and disaster management.
- Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
- The role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
- Challenges to internal security through communication networks, the role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
- Security challenges and their management in border areas-linkages of organized crime with
- Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.
Paper-V, Marks – 250
General Studies- IV : Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude
This paper includes questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem-solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilize the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered:
- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants, and consequences of Ethics in human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family, society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
- Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
- Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
- Emotional intelligence concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
- Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world.
- Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
- Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity;
Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
- Case Studies on above issues.
Paper-VI, Marks – 250
Optional Subject – Paper I
Paper-VII, Marks – 250
Optional Subject – Paper II
Candidates may choose any one optional subject from amongst the list of subjects given below.
List of Optional Subjects for Mains Examination
- Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
- Civil Engineering
- Commerce and Accountancy
- Electrical Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Medical Science
- Political Science and International Relations
- Public Administration
- Literature of any of the following languages: Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Dogri, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Maithili, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Santhali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and English.
NOTE: the expression “Qualifying” suggests that if one does not get 33% in the qualifying subject he/she is not entitled to get final result from UPSC.
UPSC Syllabus – Interview/Personality Test, Marks 275
- Candidates who qualify the UPSC Mains Exam move to the next and final phase called ‘Personality Test/Interview’ in which s/he is interviewed by a Board that has before them a record of his/her career. He/she will be asked questions on matters of general interest. The object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for a career in public service by a Board of competent and unbiased observers. The test is intended to judge the mental caliber of a candidate. In broad terms, this is really an assessment of not only his/her intellectual qualities but also social traits and his/her interest in current affairs.
- Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, clear and logical exposition, the balance of judgment, variety, and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.
- The technique of the interview is not that of a strict cross-examination but of a natural, though directed and purposive conversation which is intended to reveal the mental qualities of the candidate. Candidate can give preference of the language in which they may like to be interviewed. UPSC will make arrangement for the translators.
- The interview test is not intended to be a test either of the specialized or general knowledge of the candidates which has been already tested through their written papers. Candidates are expected to have an intelligent interest not only in their special subjects of academic study but also in the events which are happening around them both within and outside their own state or country as well as in modern currents of thoughts and in new discoveries which should rouse the curiosity of a well-educated youth.
Total Marks for Written Examination – 1750 Marks
Interview/Personality Test – 275 Marks
Grand Total – 2025 Marks
மாணவர்கள் கல்லூரியில் படிக்கும் போதே ஐஏஎஸ் தேர்வுக்கு தயாராகி விட வேண்டும் என்று மூத்த ஐஏஎஸ் அதிகாரி வெ.இறையன்பு கூறினார்.
|‘உனக்குள் ஓர் ஐஏஎஸ்’ வழிகாட்டி நிகழ்ச்சியில் ஐஏஎஸ் அதிகாரி வெ.இறையன்பு பேசினார். உடன் (இடமிருந்து) கிங் மேக்கர்ஸ் ஐஏஎஸ் அகாடமி நிர்வாக இயக்குநர் சத்ய பூமிநாதன், ‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் நடுப்பக்க ஆசிரியர் சமஸ், கடலோரப் பாதுகாப்புக் குழும கூடுதல் டிஜிபி சைலேந்திரபாபு, ஐஆர்ஏஎஸ் அதிகாரி வெங்கடேஷ் நாராயண், வருமானவரித் துறை இணை இயக்குநர் வீ.நந்தகுமார், ‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் முதுநிலை உதவி ஆசிரியர் மு.முருகேஷ்.|
கோ.பிரகாஷ் – நகராட்சி நிர்வாக ஆணையர் கோ.பிரகாஷ் பேசும்போது கூறிய தாவது:
சுவாரஸ்யமான விவாதமாக அதை உருமாற்றினார். புத்தக நாளையொட்டி கை நிறையப் புத்தகங்களுடன் வந்திருந்த அவர்,கேள்விகளுக்குச் சரியான பதில் அளித்த மாணவர்களுக்கு அந்தப் புத்தகங்களைப் பரிசாக வழங்கினார். மாணவர்கள் மத்தியில் வளைய வளைய வந்து அவர் உரையாடிய விதம் மாணவர்களைப் பெரிதும் கவர்ந்தது.
US NSA holds talks with PM Narendra Modi, Ajit Doval – Here is what transpired during the meetings
KingMakers IAS Academy | Best IAS Academy in Chennai.
United States National Security Advisor Lieutenant General HR McMaster discussed the issue of terrorism and Indo-US cooperation with his Indian counterpart Ajit Doval.
| Here are the key takeaways:
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Britain’s ‘big bang’ in Heligoland, 70 years on
Brexit may have triggered a political earthquake in Europe, but 70 years ago the UK sent real shockwaves across the seas with the largest non-nuclear explosion of that era.
As one of the four victorious allied powers after World War Two, Britain was governing a large area of occupied Germany.
The British sector included the tiny island of Heligoland, which had long been a source of diplomatic tension between the two countries.
So, when in 1947 the British needed a safe place to dispose of thousands of tonnes of unexploded ammunition, Heligoland must have seemed an obvious choice.
The code-name for the plan combined the British flair for understatement with the military taste for the literal-minded; it was to be called Operation Big Bang.
Heligoland had been a German naval fortress, and historian Jan Rueger, author of Britain, Germany, and the Struggle for the North Sea, says Operation Big Bang was designed by the British to make a big point.
“They’re very clear that there’s a symbolic side to this [operation] and that is the German tradition of militarism,” he explains.
“There’s a sense that Prussian militarism and its threat to Britain has to end and that’s very much how Operation Big Bang is received in Britain.”
The operation was carefully stage-managed – the old black and white pictures even include a close-up of a Royal Navy officer’s finger triggering the blast. Aerial footage shows the entire horizon erupting in a huge grey curtain of mud, sand and rock.
For the Royal Navy and the British Army of Occupation it was mission accomplished.
For the people of Heligoland it felt very different.
Europe in 1946 and 1947 was in chaos, with millions of displaced and dispossessed families drifting between camps or sheltering in ruined buildings.
The island had been evacuated during the war and many Heligolanders were living in exile in the coastal city of Cuxhaven about 60km (37 miles) to the south.
Olaf Ohlsen, who was 11 years old in 1947, gathered with the rest of the exiled population on the cliffs to listen for the sound of the explosion.
Few people in history can have lived through such a moment, standing at the edge of sea knowing that they would hear but not see an explosion that they knew would destroy their homes.
Olaf says everyone knew that the explosion would be shattering.
“Even in Hamburg, which is more than 150 km (93 miles) from the island,” he told me, “a schoolteacher kept a document which said the British had warned everyone to leave doors and windows open to help the buildings withstand the blast.”
Olaf’s father was among the pessimists who believed that Britain’s real intention was to blow up the island behind a literal smokescreen created by the destruction of the captured ammunition.
He still recalls the first time his father brought news of what had happened after the blast, shouting with excitement: “Heligoland is still here, it’s still here.”
In the middle of the 20th Century Heligoland still mattered to its people, fiercely independent speakers of a Friesian dialect who are neither British nor German.
But it had lost the strategic importance that made it a crucial bone of contention between the great powers of Europe a hundred years earlier.
Britain occupied Heligoland in the Napoleonic period as part of its complex manoeuvrings to deny the French leader the support of the navies of Scandinavia as he took over huge parts of Europe.
Thus the British found themselves with a handy naval base that guarded the entrance to the port of Hamburg and allowed it to slip secret agents freely into Napoleonic Europe. By the time they gifted it to the Kaiser in 1890, though, its usefulness appeared to be at an end.
Detlev Rickmers, a local hotel owner whose family have been Heligolanders for 500 years, says that even though it’s more than a century since the link was broken, a sense of Britishness ran through the population for a long time after 1890.
“Of course there was a British governor, there was a sense of being British,” he says. “There were connections to Britain. My grandfather told me that he always remembered the excitement of the days when the salesman would call from Huntley and Palmer.”
In the wake of the Big Bang, of course, things are very different.
The British bombing operation acted as a kind of catalyst for a new form of post-war German nationalism. There were campaigns for the island to be returned to German sovereignty and for a rebuilding programme to allow the Heligolanders to go home.
Historian Jan Rueger says that perhaps for the last time Operation Big Bang had made Heligoland part of a larger historical argument.
“As always in history there’s a paradoxical side to these events,” he says. “In this case it lies in the way that all over Germany this is seen as a moment that victimises the Germans and allows them to see themselves as victims after a war in which the rest of Europe has been the victim of German aggression.”
The British bombing left Heligoland’s landscape pock-marked and cratered. B
ut the island endured: a stubborn lump of rock in the North Sea.
And while most visitors are drawn these days by the lure of duty-free shopping, Heligoland has a fascinating story to tell to anyone who’ll listen.
‘உனக்குள் ஓர் ஐஏஎஸ்’ வழிகாட்டும் நிகழ்ச்சியில் கோவை மாவட்ட வருவாய் அலுவலர் அறிவுரை
‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் நாளிதழ் மற்றும் ‘கிங்மேக்கர்ஸ் ஐஏஎஸ் அகாடமி’ சார்பில் ‘உனக்குள் ஓர் ஐஏஎஸ்’ என்ற வழிகாட்டும் நிகழ்ச்சி தமிழகம் முழுவதும் முக்கிய நகரங்களில் நடைபெற்று வருகிறது. அதன்படி, கோவை சரவணம்பட்டியில் உள்ள குமரகுரு காலேஜ் ஆஃப் டெக்னாலஜி கல்லூரியில் நேற்று நடைபெற்ற நிகழ்ச்சியைத் தொடங்கி வைத்து துரை.ரவிச்சந்திரன் பேசியதாவது:
2000-2003-ம் ஆண்டுகளில் அரசுப் பயிற்சி நிலையங்களில் மட்டுமே குடிமைப்பணி தேர்வுக்குப் பயிற்சி பெறும் நிலை இருந்தது. டெல்லியில்தான் தனியார் பயிற்சி மையங்கள் இருந்தன. ஐஏஎஸ் படிக்க போதுமான வசதிகள் இல்லை. ஆனால், தற்போது பயிற்சி வசதிகள் அதிகம் வந்துவிட்டன.
மாணவர்கள் கல்லூரிப் பரு வத்தின்போதே செய்தி, நாட்டு நடப்புகளை அறிந்துகொண்டு, தேர்வுக்கு தங்களை தயார்படுத்திக் கொள்ளவேண்டும். 32 வகையான குடிமைப் பணிகளுக்கு கல்லூரி இளங்கலை படிப்புதான் அடிப்படையாகும்.
நாளிதழ்கள் மூலமாக உள்நாட்டு, சர்வதேச தகவல்களை அறியலாம். நாம் சேகரித்து வைக்கும் தகவல்கள் எப்போதுமே நமக்குப் பயன் அளிக்கும். கடந்த சில ஆண்டுகளாக பிஹார், உத்தரபிரதேசத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள்தான் போட்டித் தேர்வில் அதிக வெற்றிகள் பெற்று, முன்னணியில் உள்ளனர்.
தமிழகத்தைவிட அங்கு கல்லூரி களும், பள்ளிகளும் குறைவாக இருந்தாலும்கூட, கடுமையாக முயற்சிக்கின்றனர். அதனாலேயே அந்த இரு மாநிலத்தவர்கள் அதிக அளவில் ஐஏஎஸ் தேர்வில் வெற்றி பெறுகிறார்கள். அதுபோல, தமிழக மாணவ, மாணவிகளும் வரும்காலத்தில் குடிமைப்பணித் தேர்வில் வெற்றி பெற்று, அகில இந்தியப் பணிகளில் முதன்மை பெற வேண்டும் என்றார்.
இந்த நிகழ்ச்சியில், கோவை மற்றும் சுற்றுவட்டார மாவட்டங்களைச் சேர்ந்த ஆயிரத்துக்கும் மேற்பட்ட மாணவ, மாணவிகள் கலந்துகொண்டனர். அவர்களுக்கு தேர்வு மாதிரி வினாத்தாள், பாடத்திட்ட கையேடு உள்ளிட்டவை இலவசமாக வழங்கப்பட்டன. மேலும், மதிய உணவும் வழங்கப்பட்டது.
ஏற்கெனவே சேலத்தில் நடைபெற்ற நிகழ்ச்சியில் தேர்வு செய்யப்பட்ட சேலம் கிருத்திகா, வேதாரண்யம் கவிமணி, திருச்சி ஜெகநாதன் ஆகியோருக்கு கிங் மேக்கர்ஸ் ஐஏஎஸ் அகாடமி சார்பில் இலவசப் பயிற்சிக்கான உத்தரவு வழங்கப்பட்டது. இந்த நிகழ்ச்சியை ‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் முதுநிலை உதவி ஆசிரியர் மு.முருகேஷ் தொகுத்து வழங்கினார்.
இந்தி பேசாத மாநிலங்களின் குரலாக தமிழகம் மாற வேண்டும் – ‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் நடுப்பக்க ஆசிரியர் சமஸ்:
இன்று ஒரு வரலாற்று முக்கியத்துவம் வாய்ந்த காலகட்டத்தில் நாம் இருக்கிறோம். மாநில உரிமைகள் பறிபோகின்றன, மாநிலத்தின் குரல் எடுபடவில்லை என்ற புகார்கள் ஏதோ தமிழகத்தில் மட்டும் கேட்கவில்லை. வங்கத்தில், திரிபுராவில், ஒடிசாவில் என்று இந்தி பேசாத மாநிலங்கள் பலவற்றிலும் இதே குரல்தான் ஒலிக்கிறது. ஆக, தமிழகம் பேசிக்கொண்டிருக்கும் பிரச்சினை உண்மையில் தேசிய அளவிலான ஒரு பிரச்சினை. இந்தியாவின் பன்மைத்துவம் தொடர்பிலான பிரச்சினை. இதற்கு தீர்வு காண வேண்டும் என்றால் முடிவெடுக்கும் இடத்தில் நாம் அமர வேண்டும். வெறும் பிழைப்புக்கான வாழ்க்கையாக அல்லாமல், ஆள்வதற்கான, சமத்துவத்துக்கான வாழ்க்கையாக நம்முடைய வாழ்க்கையை வளர்த்தெடுக்க வேண்டும். ‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் நாளிதழ் அந்த வரலாற்று நோக்கிலேயே இந்த நிகழ்ச்சியை நடத்துகிறது. கோழியும் பறவைதான், பருந்தும் பறவைதான். நமக்கும் சிறகுகள் இருப்பதை உணர்வோம். வானுயர இனி நம் சிறகுகளை விரிப்போம்.
திருப்புமுனையாக அமையும் தருணம் இது – காவல் துணை ஆணையர் எஸ்.சரவணன்:
கல்லூரியில் படிக்கும்போதே என்னவாக வேண்டும் என யோசிப்பவர்கள் புத்திசாலிகள். பொருளாதாரம், முதல் தலைமுறை பட்டதாரி, ஆங்கில அறிவு, கூச்சம் போன்ற பிரச்சினைகள் இருந்தால், நிச்சயம் குடிமைப்பணி தேர்வில் வெல்ல முடியும். ஏனென்றால் இதுபோன்ற நிலையில் இருந்து வந்த பலரும் சாதித்துள்ளனர்.
கல்லூரி படிப்பு டெஸ்ட் மேட்ச் போன்றது. தோற்றாலும், அரியர் வைத்து கல்லூரிப் படிப்பு முடியும்வரை எழுதலாம். ஆனால், குடிமைப்பணி தேர்வு 20-20 மேட்ச் போன்றது. போட்டி, போட்டியாளர்கள் அதிகம். குடிமைப்பணி படிப்பவர்களுக்கு, நேர மேலாண்மை, ஒரே எண்ணம் கொண்ட நண்பர்கள் குழு, நாளிதழ் படிக்கும் பழக்கம், உடல்நலன் மீதான அக்கறை ஆகியவை அவசியம்.
கடின உழைப்பு நம்மை சிறந்த அதிகாரியாக உருவாக்கும். அனைவருக்கும் எதாவது ஒரு தருணம் திருப்புமுனையாக அமையும். இங்கு வந்துள்ள மாணவர்களுக்கு இந்த நிகழ்ச்சி அந்த தருணமாக இருக்க வேண்டும் என்பதே எனது விருப்பம்.
தமிழ்ச் சமூகத்துக்குக் கிடைத்த பெரும் பேறு – கிங் மேக்கர்ஸ் ஐஏஎஸ் அகாடமி தலைவர் மற்றும் மேலாண்மை இயக்குநர் சத்யஸ்ரீ பூமிநாதன்:
‘தி இந்து’ குழுமத்துடன் இணைந்து இந்த நிகழ்ச்சியை நடத்துவதில் பெருமைப்படுகிறோம். நாங்கள் படித்த காலத்தில் ‘தி இந்து’ நாளிதழ் தமிழில் வராதா என்று ஏங்கியிருக்கிறோம். இன்றைக்கு ‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் நாளிதழ் ஒரு சர்வதேச நாளிதழுக்கான தரத்தோடு தமிழில் வெளியாவது தமிழ்ச் சமூகத்துக்குக் கிடைத்திருக்கும் பெரும் பேறு. இளைய தலைமுறை இதைப் பயன்படுத்திக்கொள்ள வேண்டும். போட்டித் தேர்வர்களுக்கு ‘தி இந்து’ ஆங்கிலம், தமிழ் நாளிதழ்கள்போல ஒரு துணைவன் இல்லை.
|‘தி இந்து’ தமிழ் நாளிதழ் மற்றும் ‘கிங் மேக்கர்ஸ் ஐஏஎஸ் அகாடமி’ சார்பில் கோவை சரவணம்பட்டியில் உள்ள குமரகுரு காலேஜ் ஆஃப் டெக்னாலஜி கல்லூரியில் நேற்று நடைபெற்ற ‘உனக்குள் ஓர் ஐஏஎஸ்’ வழிகாட்டும் நிகழ்ச்சியில் ஆர்வமுடன் பங்கேற்ற மாணவ, மாணவிகள். | படங்கள்: ஜெ.மனோகரன்|
இந்த நிகழ்ச்சியில் பங்கேற்ற மாணவ, மாணவிகள், விழாவில் பங்கேற்ற சிறப்பு விருந்தினர்களிடம் பல்வேறு கேள்விகளைக் கேட்டனர். பல்வேறு பிரச்சினைகளை எதிர்கொள்ளும் ஐஏஎஸ், ஐபிஎஸ் அதிகாரிகளுக்கு மனஅழுத்தம், நெருக்கடி அதிகம் இருக்குமா, அரசியல்வாதிகளின் நிர்ப்பந்தம் இருக்குமா, ஐஏஎஸ் தேர்ச்சி பெற்ற பின்னர் வெகுதொலைவில் நடைபெறும் பயிற்சி முகாமில் பங்கேற்பது பெண்களுக்கு சிறப்பாக இருக்குமா என்றெல்லாம் கேட்டனர்.
மேலும், காவல் துணை ஆணையர் சரவணனிடம், “கம்பீரமான, சிங்க இலச்சினை பொருத்திய தொப்பியை முதல்முறையாக அணிந்தபோது எவ்வாறு உணர்ந்தீர்கள்?” என்றும் கேட்டனர். இதுபோன்ற கேள்விகளுக்கு சிறப்பு விருந்தினர்களும் சுவாரஸ்யமாக பதில் அளித்தனர்.
பி.எஸ்.சி. வேளாண்மை முடித்துவிட்டு, தனியார் நிறுவனத்தில் பணியாற்றுகிறேன். ஐஏஎஸ் படிக்கத் திட்டமிட்டுள்ள எனக்கு இந்த நிகழ்ச்சி மிகவும் பயனுள்ளதாக இருந்தது. குடிமைப்பணி தேர்வு தொடர்பான எனது பல்வேறு சந்தேகங்களுக்கு விளக்கம் கிடைத்தது.
எம்.எஸ்சி. பயோ-டெக்னாலஜி படித்துள்ள நான் கடந்த ஓராண்டாக யு.பி.எஸ்.சி. தேர்வுக்குத் தயாராகி வருகிறேன். வீட்டில் இருந்தவாறே தயாராகி வந்த நான், பயிற்சி மையத்தின் அவசியத்தை தற்போது உணர்ந்துகொண்டேன். விரைவில் நான் பயிற்சி மையத்தில் சேருவேன்.
பி.இ., கம்ப்யூட்டர் சயின்ஸ் முடித்துள்ள நான், ஐஏஎஸ் தேர்வுக் குத் தயாராகி வருகிறேன். தேர்வு களை தைரியமாக எதிர்கொள்ளு தல், நேர மேலாண்மை, சக மாணவிகளுடன் இணைந்து படித்தல் உள்ளிட்ட பல்வேறு விஷயங்களை இந்நிகழ்ச்சி மூலம் தெரிந்துகொண்டேன்.
அண்மையில் பிளஸ் 2 முடித்துள்ள நான் எதிர்காலத்தில் ஐஏஎஸ் தேர்வு எழுதத் திட்டமிட்டுள்ளேன். என்ன படிப்பது, எப்படி படிப்பது, தேர்வு களை எதிர்கொள்வது எப்படி, அதிகாரிகளான பின்னர் எவ்வாறு நடந்துகொள்வது உள்ளிட்ட விவரங்களை அறிந்துகொண்டேன்.
பி.இ. எலக்ட்ரிகல் அண்டு எலக்ட்ரானிக்ஸ் 3-ம் ஆண்டு பயின்று வரும் நான், சிறு வயது முதலே ஐஏஎஸ் அதிகாரியாக வேண்டும் என கனவு கண்டு வரு கிறேன். தேவையான புத்தகங் களைப் பெறும் வழிமுறைகள், தன்னம்பிக்கையை வளர்ப்பது குறித்து கற்றுக்கொண்டேன்.
எம்.இ. உற்பத்திப் பொறியியல் படித்துள்ள நான், ஐஏஎஸ் முதல்கட்டத் தேர்வுக்குத் தயாராகி வருகிறேன். என்ன பாடம் படிப்பது, அலுவலர்களை அணுகும் முறை, எத்தனை முறை தேர்வு எழுதுவது உள்ளிட்ட சந்தேகங்கள் நீங்கி, தேர்வு எழுத ஊக்கம் கிடைத்துள்ளது.
பி.ஏ. பி.எல். மூன்றாமாண்டு படித்து வரும் நான், கடந்த ஓராண்டாக ஐஏஎஸ் தேர்வுக்குத் தயாராகி வருகிறேன். தேர்வு முறைகள், பயிற்சி மையத்தின் முக்கியத்துவம், தேர்வுக்குப்பின் செயல்பட வேண்டிய முறைகள் ஆகியவை குறித்து இந்தப் பயிலரங்கில் தெரிந்துகொண்டேன்.
Reading NCERT Textbooks is essential for your IAS exam preparation and if you have a question on your mind or confused on which NCERT books to choose and read, then here is the solution to your doubts and confusion on which books to refer. Ideally, you should work your way through all related books from class 6 to class 12. But even in these books, some topics are more important than the others, so here’s the list of NCERT Books and topics (highlighted in color) that have to given importance while preparing for civil service exams.
Once a candidate starts preparing for UPSC IAS Exam, there will be a lot of questions in their mind. One of the frequently arising questions is which NCERT books to read for UPSC prelims. NCERT books are very necessary for UPSC Preparation. These books help you in both prelims and mains exam.
Take a look at the list of NCERT books for civil services preparation.
History is an important topic in UPSC IAS prelims and mains examination. Here were giving the list of NCERT history books for UPSC. This NCERT books will help the aspirants to prepare for the exam very well.
- History: NCERT Class VI – Our Past
- History: NCERT Class VII – Our Past -I
- History: NCERT Class VIII – Our Past II and III
- History: NCERT Class IX – India and the Contemporary World – I
- History: NCERT Class IX – India and the Contemporary World – II
- History: NCERT Class X – Themes In World History
- History: NCERT Class XII – Themes In Indian History – I
- History: NCERT Class XII – Themes in Indian History – II
- History: NCERT Class XII – Themes In Indian History – III
Indian Society NCERTs
- Indian Society: NCERT Class VI – Social Science: Social & Political Life I
- Indian Society: NCERT Class VII – Social Science: Social & Political Life II
- Indian Society: NCERT Class VIII – Social Science: Social & Political Life III
- Indian Society: NCERT Class XI – Sociology: Understanding Society
- Indian Society: NCERT Class XII – Indian Society
- Indian Society: NCERT Class XII – Social Change and Development in India
IAS aspirants can also refer class 12 book for Sociology.
Art & Culture NCERTs (Indian art and culture book for UPSC)
- Art & Culture : NCERT Class XI – An Introduction to Indian Art
- Art & Culture : NCERT Class XI – Living Craft Traditions of India (Chapters 9 & 10)
- Geography: NCERT Class VI – The Earth Our Habitat
- Geography: NCERT Class VII – Our Environment
- Geography: NCERT Class VIII – Resource and Development
- Geography: NCERT Class IX – Contemporary India – I
- Geography: NCERT Class X – Contemporary India – II
- Geography: NCERT Class XI – Fundamentals of Physical Geography
- Geography: NCERT Class XI – India – Physical Environment
- Geography: NCERT Class XII – Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Geography: NCERT Class XII – India – People and Economy
you can read from class 6 to class 12 along with giving importance on the highlighted textbooks, especially the four NCERT textbooks from classes XI to XII.
Refer class 11 and 12 textbooks. However, try to get a hold of the Old NCERT history books, though they are not mandatory, but occasionally questions are asked from here.
Additional Books for Reference: NCERT History Textbooks of the old syllabus (1990s):
- Ancient India (class XI) by RS Sharma: This covers the ancient Indian history syllabus completely.
- Alternative Published version: India’s Ancient Past – RS Sharma: Covers all of the NCERT syllabi and is more detailed in all aspects. Should be a good substitute.
- Medieval India (class IX) by Satish Chandra: This should be enough for Medieval.
- Alternative Published version: History of Medieval India – Satish Chandra: More detailed than the NCERT but less easy to read. NCERT would be better.
- Modern India (class X) by Bipin Chandra:
- Alternative Published version: India Before Independence: Bipan Chandra’s published book is easily available is more comprehensive, but the NCERT is more objective and easier to read.
- World History (Class X): Should be enough for an intro to world history
- Polity: NCERT Class IX – Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – I
- Polity: NCERT Class X – Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – II
- Polity: NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Indian Constitution at Work
- Polity: NCERT Class XI – Political Science: Political Theory
- Polity: NCERT Class XII – Political Science I: Contemporary World Politics
- Polity: NCERT Class XII – Political Science II: Politics in India since Independence
For Polity: Class 9 to 12 NCERT books should be read in detail, with a focus on 11th and 12th (of which World Politics, only if time permits).
Indian Economy NCERTs
- Economy: NCERT Class IX – Economics: Economics
- Economy: NCERT Class X – Understanding Economic Development
- Economy: NCERT Class XI – Indian Economic Development
- Economy: NCERT Class XII – Introductory Microeconomics
- Economy: NCERT Class XII – Introductory Macroeconomics
Science & Technology NCERTs
- Science: NCERT Class VI
- Science: NCERT Class VII
- Science: NCERT Class VIII
- Science: NCERT Class IX
- Science: NCERT Class X
- Science: NCERT Class XI – Chemistry: Unit 14 & Biology: Units 4 & 5
- Science: NCERT Class XII – Chemistry: Unit 16 & Biology: Units 8, 9 & 10
Environment & Ecology NCERTs
- Science: Class XII – Biology: last four Chapters (13 to 16)
For Economics: Reference of class 9 to 12 should be ideal, but if you are familiar with the subject, class 11 and some chapters in class 11 and class 12 (micro + macro) would be sufficient. So, read selectively! For Science: Refer textbooks of class IX and X that would be good enough for your IAS exam preparation.Paper IV
- Ethics: NCERT Class XII – Psychology: Not important in exam perspective, however good for some basics. Read selectively.
Note: You can download all NCERT textbooks HERE.
Compiled PDFs for all NCERT Books will be available for download very soon on this page, so keep visiting us Here’s a list of NCERT textbooks given class-wise for your reference in preparing for UPSC Exam:
|6th||History: Our Past Geography: The Earth Our Habitat Social Science: Social & Political Life IScience: Science: Class VI|
|7th||History: Our Past – II Geography: Our Environment Social Science: Social & Political Life II Science: Science: Class VII|
|8th||History: Our Past III – Part I & II Geography: Resource and Development Social Science: Social & Political Life III Science: Science: Class VIII|
|9th||History: India and the Contemporary World-I Geography: Contemporary India – I Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – I Science: Class IX Economics: Economics|
|10th||History: India and the Contemporary World – II Geography: Contemporary India – II Political Science: Democratic Politics Part – II Science: Class X Economics: Understanding Economic Development|
|11th||History: Themes in World History Geography: 1. Fundamentals Of Physical Geography 2. India- Physical Environment Science: 1. Chemistry: Unit 14 2. Biology: Unit 4 & 5Economics: Indian Economic Development Sociology: Understanding Society Political Science: Indian Constitution at Work An Introduction to Indian Art Living Craft Traditions of India (Chapters 9 & 10)|
|12th||History: Themes in Indian History Geography: 1. Fundamentals Of Human Geography 2. India – People & Economy Science: 1. Chemistry: Unit 16 2. Biology: Unit 8, 9 & 10Economics: Introductory Macroeconomics Sociology: 1. Indian Society 2. Social Change and Development in India Political Science: Contemporary World Politics|
So, it is a given that you must read NCERT books for IAS prelims and mains if you are serious about clearing your UPSC civil services. But you must also know which NCERT books to read and how much to read because of the time constraints and the huge amount of reading that you have to do for your IAS preparation.
To know which NCERTs are better – new or old NCERT books for UPSC preparation, click on the link below:
Now that you have the complete list of NCERT books for UPSC civil services, you can start your IAS preparation today!