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UPSC CSE Mains 2018 – Essay Question Paper

UPSC CSE MAINS 2018 Essay Question paper
UPSC CSE MAINS 2018 Essay Question paper

Instructions: Write two essays, choosing one from each of the following Section A & B, in about 1000-1200 words.   Total Marks: 125 x 2 =250


1. Alternative technologies for a climate change resilient India.

2. A good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge.

3. Poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere.

4. Management of Indian border disputes –a complex task.


1. Customary morality cannot be a guide to modern life.

2. ‘The past’ is a permanent dimension of human consciousness and values.

3. A people that values its privileges above its principles loses both.

4. Reality does not conform to the ideal, but confirms it.  


This year UPSC has once again established its dynamism. Section-B of 2018 essay paper is entirely philosophical and ethics based. Hence candidates must compulsorily attend atleast one essay from this section. 
Philosophical or quotation based essays need broad thinking and the essay must move through a wide canvas. These essays not only test the writing skills of the candidates but also the attitude.

Hence, aspirants of CSE – 2019 must broaden their perspective, thought process and improve their writing skills further to score above average marks in Essay paper.

SC’s Landmark Verdict on Section 377 of IPC

LGBT Rights & Supreme Court
LGBT Rights & Supreme Court Source: News 18

Supreme Court in September 2018, decriminalized homosexuality by partially striking down Section 377 of IPC stating that it is irrational, manifestly arbitrary,  unconstitutional and incomprehensible as it fetters the right to equality for LGBT community.

The court ruled that LGBT people in India are entitled to all constitutional rights, including the liberties protected by the Constitution of India. This included “the choice of whom to partner, the ability to find fulfillment in sexual intimacies and the right not to be subjected to discriminatory behaviour are intrinsic to the constitutional protection of sexual orientation”.The judgement also made note that LGBT people are entitled to an equal citizenship and protection under law, without discrimination.

However, other portions of Section 377 relating to sex with minors, non-consensual sexual acts, and bestiality remain in force.

In the 493-page-long judgement, the five-judge bench, comprised of Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra along with Justices DY Chandrachud, Rohinton Nariman, Indu Malhotra and AM Khanwilkar, extended the scope of fundamental rights, affirmed the importance of choice and constitutional morality, and emphasised the transformative nature of our Constitution.

Important arguments given by the 5 judges in 4 separately drafted judgments is highlighted here in the following write up.

Source: The Quint

CJI Dipak Misra: Self-Determination

CJI Dipak Misra wrote on behalf of himself and Justice AM Khanwilkar. He mentioned the importance of the self-determination.

  • The cornerstone of CJI Misra’s opinion is self-determination, ie, choice,which is what allows us to establish our identity. Identity, which includes sexual orientation, is in turn essential to enjoyment of one’s fundamental right to privacy and dignity.
  • Section 377’s failure to differentiate between consensual and non-consensual acts (unlike Section 375, which defines rape as non-consensual act) means it has no reasonable connection to the objectives of criminal law – to prevent harm. Instead, it allows for discrimination and unequal treatment of the LGBT community, even for actions by consenting adults in a private space, which is “manifestly arbitrary”.
  • In arriving at these conclusions, CJI Misra emphasised the need for the courts to interpret the Constitution of India as a “living and organic document” which needs to be interpreted by the courts pragmatically and progressively to address inequality and injustice in society and transform society.
  • CJI Misra used the concept of constitutional morality to overrule one of the key arguments in Koushal – that the LGBT community makes up a “minuscule fraction” of the population. He said “Moral indignation, howsoever strong, is not a valid basis for overriding individual’s fundamental rights of dignity and privacy,” the court wrote. “In our scheme of things, constitutional morality must outweigh the argument of public morality, even if it be the majoritarian view.”

Justice Rohinton Nariman: Constitutional Morality Over Majoritarianism

  • His reasoning is slightly different from the Chief Justice’s, however, relying instead on “modern psychiatric studies and legislation which recognises that gay persons and transgenders are not persons suffering from mental disorder and cannot therefore be penalised.” By punishing even consensual same-sex acts, therefore, Section 377 is “capricious and irrational.”
  • He also cites his judgment in the Shreya Singhal case (which struck down Section 66A of the IT Act) to say that the “chilling effect” caused by Section 377 violates the right to privacy under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution.
  • Justice Nariman also laid down a principle that could play a big role in cases to come, by holding that there is no presumption of constitutionality when it comes to laws that predate the Constitution. Such laws, including unamended provisions of the IPC (like the offence of adultery), were not drafted keeping constitutional requirements in mind, and will be easier to challenge in court than those created by Parliament post-1950.
  • Perhaps the most powerful paragraphs of Justice Nariman’s judgment are those where he rejects the argument in the Koushal decision that it is Parliament (which represents the will of the people), not the courts, that should be striking off or reading down Section 377. According to Justice Nariman, the entire point of having fundamental rights in the Constitution is ensure that liberty and dignity of an individual cannot be toyed with by majoritarian governments. The Supreme Court is supposed to be guided by constitutional morality to protect the rights of even ‘discrete and insular’ minorities – such as the LGBT community.
  • These fundamental rights do not depend on the outcome of elections. And it is not left to majoritarian governments to prescribe what shall be orthodox in matters concerning social morality… Constitutional morality always trumps any imposition of a particular view of social morality by shifting and different majoritarian regimes.
  • But perhaps the truly revolutionary aspect of Justice Nariman’s judgment was an explicit declaration by him that the LGBT community is “entitled to be treated in society as human beings without any stigma attached to any of them
  • What’s more, Justice Nariman also holds that the government has to take all measures to ensure the judgment is widely publicised through the media at regular intervals, including on TV, radio, print and online.

Justice DY Chandrachud: Indirect Discrimination on the basis of sex

The truly distinct aspect of Justice Chandrachud’s judgment is his formulation of why Section 377 violates the right against discrimination, which is protected under Article 15(1) of the Constitution. According to legal experts, his judgment “represents the most advanced interpretation of Article 15(1) and non-discrimination that has come out of the Supreme Court thus far.”

Justice Chandrachud draws up a radical connection between sexual orientation and “sex” which is a ground on which discrimination is prohibited in article 15.

  1. The origin of a law like Section 377 arises from stereotypes about gender roles and the distinctions between men and women under these. Deviations from the heterosexual norms are frowned upon, and so a law is brought in to regulate them
  2. Section 377 is “facially neutral” but the provision has a disproportionate effect on the LGBT community, since it criminalises all same-sex acts, as against a certain percentage of heterosexual acts. This is indirect discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.

This case involves much more than merely decriminalising certain conduct which has been proscribed by a colonial law. The case is about an aspiration to realise constitutional rights. It is about a right which every human being has, to live with dignity. It is about enabling these citizens to realise the worth of equal citizenship.

Justice Indu Malhotra: ‘Apology’ and Pending Cases

History owes an apology to the members of this community and their families, for the delay in providing redressal for the ignominy and ostracism that they have suffered through the centuries. The members of this community were compelled to live a life full of fear of reprisal and persecution. This was on account of the ignorance of the majority to recognise that homosexuality is a completely natural condition, part of a range of human sexuality.

Justice Malhotra was the only judge to address what would happen to ongoing cases where people have been accused of offences under Section 377. She clarified that the ruling would apply to any pending cases (whether at trial, appellate or revisional stage), which means wherever any of these cases involves consensual adults, the prosecution can be quashed.

Related Articles:

Section 377 of IPC in Brief

Section 377 of IPC – In Brief

Section 377 IPC
Section 377 IPC

Section 377 of the Indian penal code criminalizes the sexual activities against the order of nature.  According to it,

 “Whoever voluntarily has carnal inter­course against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with impris­onment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.”

This archaic British law dates back to Indian Penal Code 1860, introduced by Lord Macaulay. It criminalises sexual activities against the order of nature. One of the grounds of introduction of the section was to criminalise the acts of homosexuality as it was condemned by many religions. More importantly the section did not make any distinction between the consensual acts and non-consensual acts.

This section violates the basic human rights of LGBT community and leads to harassment and violence against them. This has led to protests demanding the repeal of the section.

Judicial Evolution of Section 377

Naz Foundation (India) Trust v. Government of NCT of Delhi (2009)

Naz foundation is a Delhi based NGO that works in the field of HIV prevention among homosexuals. Working in this field the foundation realized that section 377 acted as a biggest impediment for LGBT community in having access to health services because of fear of prosecution under the law.

This further makes the homosexual community vulnerable. Therefore in 2001 the foundation filed a writ petition in the Delhi High Court challenging the constitutionality of section on grounds of violation  right to privacy and health (A. 21), freedom of expression (A.19) & equality (A.14).

Further they submitted violation of Article 15 which says there will be no discrimination on basis of sex. Even the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (in conjunction with the National Aids Control Organization) supported the petition of Naz foundation on grounds that existence of section 377 proves counterproductive to prevention of HIV AIDS.

But the case was dismissed by the HC saying that the petitioner has no locus standi in the matter.  Naz Foundation appealed to the Supreme Court against the decision of the High Court to dismiss the petition on technical grounds. The Supreme Court decided that Naz Foundation had the standing to file a PIL in this case and sent the case back to the Delhi High Court to reconsider it on merit.

Finally in 2009 the court passed the landmark judgment upholding Section 377 unconstitutional on grounds of violation of fundamental rights under article 14, 15 and 21 of the constitution.

  • First the court stated that section 377 violates article 14 which states that every citizen has equal opportunity of life and is equal before law.
  • Second Court said that the word sex under article 15 should not be narrowly interpreted. The word sex apart from biological sex also includes the sexual orientation of the individual, so any discrimination on basis of sexual orientation is not permitted under article 15.
  • The Court also noted that the right to life under Article 21 includes the right to health, and concluded that Section 377 is an impediment to public health because it hinders HIV-prevention efforts.
  •  Above all the by criminalizing consensual sexual acts between adults in private, Section 377 grossly violates the right to privacy and liberty guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • Summing up its judgment, the High Court stressed the importance of upholding the values of equality, tolerance and inclusiveness in Indian society.

An appeal was filed against this decision in the Supreme Court by several organisaitons (Reigious, political and social) and individuals (including Suresh Koushal), who claimed that the right to privacy did not include right to commit an offence, and that decriminalising homosexuality would affect the institution of marriage.

Suresh Kumar Koushal & Ors. v. Naz Foundation (India ) Trust 2013

In this case the SC overturned the High Court verdict and recriminalized homosexuality. While upholding the constitutional validity of the section, The SC said that it is not violation of article 14 as it made a distinction between persons who “indulge in carnal intercourse in the ordinary course” and persons who “indulge in carnal intercourse against the order of nature.”

Most shockingly, the Court said that the LGBT community constitutes only a “minuscule fraction” of the country’s population. Court maintained that hardly 200 persons have been prosecuted in 150 years of Section 377. Further the court said that the argument that Section 377 is misused by the police to blackmail, harass and a torture homosexual is not a valid ground to hold the section unconstitutional.

Ultimately, the Court held that Section 377 is constitutional, since it does not violate Articles 14, 19 and 21 The Court also held that their ruling is only on the correctness of the Delhi High Court’s decision. It observed that Parliament is free to consider the desirability and propriety of repealing or amending Section 377.

The solution, it said, was to clarify the law with suitable legislative amendments, rather than say the law violated the right to freedom and equality.

Justice K. S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) and Anr. vs Union Of India And Ors. (Right to Privacy case)

In August 2017, the Supreme Court in Justice Puttaswamy case judgment on Right to Privacy ruled that sexual orientation is an important attribute of privacy.

The Supreme Court stated that Right to Privacy and Protection of Sexual Orientation are a fundamental right under Articles 14, 15 and 21 of the Constitution. The SC also said that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is offensive to the dignity of an individual. It ultimately paved way for decriminalization of homosexuality.

On 27 April 2016, five people from the LGBT community (including Navtej Singh Johar)  filed a new writ petition in the Supreme Court challenging the constitutionality of Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. The petitioners claimed that the issues which they raised in their petition were varied and diverse from those raised in the pending curative petition in the 2013 Koushal case, in which the Supreme Court had upheld the constitutionality of Section 377.

Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India

Supreme Court in September 2018 decriminalized section 377 stating that Section 377 is irrational, arbitrary, manifestly unconstitutional and incomprehensible as it fetters the right to equality for LGBT community.

The court ruled that LGBT people in India are entitled to all constitutional rights, including the liberties protected by the Constitution of India. This included “the choice of whom to partner, the ability to find fulfillment in sexual intimacies and the right not to be subjected to discriminatory behaviour are intrinsic to the constitutional protection of sexual orientation”.The judgement also made note that LGBTs are entitled to an equal citizenship and protection under law, without discrimination.

However, other portions of Section 377 relating to sex with minors, non-consensual sexual acts, and bestiality remain in force.

Types of Climates – Made Simple Series

Types of Climate Made Simple
Types of Climate Made Simple

Part 2 of Certificate Physical & Human Geography by GOH CHENG LEONG is Made simple through Infographics

Download – CLICK HERE

National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence – NITI Ayog Discussion Paper

National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence
National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence

NITI Aayog has published an ambitious discussion paper on kickstarting the artificial intelligence (AI) ecosystem in India. AI is the use of computers to mimic human cognitive processes for decision-making. There has been tremendous activity concerning AI policy in different countries over the past couple of years. Governments in USA, UK, France, Japan and China have released their policy and strategy papers relating to AI. In order to establish a leadership role, it is important for India to take the plunge and start by releasing a Strategy Paper to initiate the roll out of an ambitious programme that would ensure for India its rightful place in this transformational era.

The truly transformative nature of the AI technology, yet the nascent stage of its adoption worldwide, provides India with an opportunity to define its own brand of AI leadership. #AIforAll – the brand proposed for India implies inclusive technology leadership, where the full potential of AI is realised in pursuance of the country’s unique needs and aspirations. The strategy should strive to leverage AI for economic growth, social development and inclusive growth, and finally as a “Garage” for emerging and developing economies.

While AI has the potential to provide large incremental value to a wide range of sectors, adoption till date has been driven primarily from a commercial perspective. NITI Aayog has decided to focus on five sectors that are envisioned to benefit the most from AI in solving societal needs:

  1. Healthcare: increased access and affordability of quality healthcare,
  2. Agriculture: enhanced farmers’ income, increased farm productivity and reduction of wastage,
  3. Education: improved access and quality of education,
  4. Smart Cities and Infrastructure: efficient and connectivity for the burgeoning urban population,
  5. Smart Mobility and Transportation: smarter and safer modes of transportation and better traffic and congestion problems.

Barriers Ahead:

  • Lack of broad based expertise in research and application of AI,
  • Absence of enabling data ecosystems – access to intelligent data,
  • High resource cost and low awareness for adoption of AI,
  • Privacy and security, including a lack of formal regulations around anonymisation of data, and
  • Absence of collaborative approach to adoption and application of AI.

Superior research capabilities have been the cornerstone of leadership aspirations in emerging technologies and effectively realising the growth potential requires expertise in both core and applied research.

Institutional Framework

The paper proposes a two-tiered structure to address India’s AI research aspirations:

  1. a) Centre of Research Excellence (CORE) focused on developing better understanding of existing core research and pushing technology frontiers through creation of new knowledge;
  2. b) International Centers of Transformational AI (ICTAI) with a mandate of developing and deploying application-based research. Private sector collaboration is envisioned to be a key aspect of ICTAIs.

The research capabilities are proposed to be complemented by an umbrella organisation responsible for providing direction to research efforts through analysis of socio-economic indicators, studying global advancements, and encouraging international collaboration.

Need for Reskilling

As technology increasingly disrupts the nature of jobs and shifts the benchmarks of technological aptitude, skilling and reskilling of workforce forms an integral part of our approach to adopting AI. There is an emergent need for reskilling the existing workforce and developing future talent in accordance with the changing needs of the job market.

According to ‘Future of Jobs’ Report by World Economic Forum, more than 54% of India’s employees in 12 sectors need reskilling by 2025.

This could be done via the adoption of decentralised teaching mechanisms working in collaboration with the private sector and educational institutions to prescribe certification with value. Furthermore, promotion of job creation in new areas, like data annotation needs to be identified and promoted, as these would have the potential of absorbing a large portion of the workforce that may find itself redundant due to increasing automation.

AI Value Chain

Adoption of AI across the value chain via startups, private sector, PSUs and government entities, will truly unlock the potential by creating a virtuous cycle of supply and demand. The barriers to AI development and deployment can effectively be addressed by adopting the marketplace model –one that enables market discovery of not only the price but also of different approaches that are best suited to achieve the desired results. A three-pronged, formal marketplace could be created focusing on data collection and aggregation, data annotation and deployable models. There could be a common platform called the National AI Marketplace (NAIM).

Role of Government

Furthermore, for accelerated adoption of a highly collaborative technology like AI, the government has to play the critical role of a catalyst in supporting partnerships, providing access to infrastructure, fostering innovation through research and creating the demand by seeking solutions for addressing various governmental needs.

AI Ethics

As AI-based solutions permeate the way we live and do business, questions on ethics, privacy and security will also emerge. Most discussions on ethical considerations of AI are a derivation of the FAT framework (Fairness, Accountability and Transparency). A consortium of Ethics Councils at each Centre of Research Excellence can be set up and it would be expected that all COREs adhere to standard practice while developing AI technology and products.

Data Handling & Protection

Data is one of the primary drivers of AI solutions, and thus appropriate handling of data, ensuring privacy and security is of prime importance. Challenges include data usage without consent, risk of identification of individuals through data, data selection bias and the resulting discrimination of AI models, and asymmetry in data aggregation. The paper suggests establishing data protection frameworks and sectorial regulatory frameworks, and promotion of adoption of international standards.

Intellectual Property

In order for India to ride the AI innovation wave, a robust intellectual property framework is required. Despite a number of government initiatives in strengthening the IP regime, challenges remain, especially in respect of applying stringent and narrowly focused patent laws to AI applications – given the unique nature of AI solution development. The importance of data to development of useful models is one such example. To tackle these issues, establishment of IP facilitation centres to help bridge the gap between practitioners and AI developers, and adequate training of IP granting authorities, judiciary and tribunals is suggested.

Taiga & Tundra Type Climate- A KingmakersIAS Infographic

Taiga and Tundra Type Climate
Taiga and Tundra Type Climate

This Infographic shows the Characteristics of Taiga & Tundra Type Climate
Part 2 of Goh Cheng Leong made simple!

Steppe or Temperate Continental Climate – A Kingmakers IAS Infographic

Steppe or Temperate Continental Climate
Steppe or Temperate Continental Climate

This Infographic shows the Characteristics of Steppe or Temperate Continental Climate
Part 2 of Goh Cheng Leong made simple!

Artificial Intelligence – Applications and Challenges

Sophia - A Humanoid Robot
Sophia - A Humanoid Robot

Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to provide large incremental value to a wide range of sectors globally, and is expected to be the key source of competitive advantage for firms.

a) Healthcare

Application of AI in healthcare can help address issues of high barriers to access to healthcare facilities, particularly in rural areas that suffer from poor connectivity and limited supply of healthcare professionals. This can be achieved through implementation of use cases such as AI driven diagnostics, personalised treatment, early identification of potential pandemics, and imaging diagnostics, among others.

b) Agriculture

AI holds the promise of driving a food revolution and meeting the increased demand for food (global need to produce 50% more food and cater to an additional 2 billion people by 2050 as compared to today). It also has the potential to address challenges such as inadequate demand prediction, lack of assured irrigation, and overuse / misuse of pesticides and fertilisers. Some use cases include improvement in crop yield through real time advisory, advanced detection of pest attacks, and prediction of crop prices to inform sowing practices.

c) Smart Mobility, including Transports and Logistics

Potential use cases in this domain include autonomous fleets for ride sharing, semi-autonomous features such as driver assist, and predictive engine monitoring and maintenance. Other areas that AI can impact include autonomous trucking and delivery, and improved traffic management.

d) Retail

The retail sector has been one of the early adopters of AI solutions, with applications such as improving user experience by providing personalised suggestions, preference-based browsing and image-based product search. Other use cases include customer demand anticipation, improved inventory management, and efficient delivery management.

e) Manufacturing

Manufacturing industry is expected to be one of the biggest beneficiaries of AI based solutions, thus enabling ‘Factory of the Future‘ through flexible and adaptable technical systems to automate processes and machinery to respond to unfamiliar or unexpected situations by making smart decisions. Impact areas include engineering (AI for R&D efforts), supply chain management (demand forecasting), production (AI can achieve cost reduction and increase efficiency), maintenance (predictive maintenance and increased asset utilisation), quality assurance (e.g. vision systems with machine learning algorithms to identify defects and deviations in product features), and in-plant logistics and warehousing.
Cloud manufacturing (CMfg) is a new manufacturing paradigm developed from existing advanced manufacturing models and enterprise information technologies under the support of cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT), virtualization and service-oriented technologies, and advanced computing technologies. It transforms manufacturing resources and manufacturing capabilities into manufacturing services, which can be managed and operated in an intelligent and unified way to enable the full sharing and circulating of manufacturing resources and manufacturing capabilities.

f) Energy

Potential use cases in the energy sector include energy system modelling and forecasting to decrease unpredictability and increase efficiency in power balancing and usage. In renewable energy systems, AI can enable storage of energy through intelligent grids enabled by smart meters, and also improve the reliability and affordability of photovoltaic energy. Similar to the manufacturing sector, AI may also be deployed for predictive maintenance of grid infrastructure.

g) Smart Cities

Integration of AI in newly developed smart cities and infrastructure could also help meet the demands of a rapidly urbanising population and providing them with enhanced quality of life. Potential use cases include traffic control to reduce congestion and enhanced security through improved crowd management.

h) Education and Skilling

AI can potentially solve for quality and access issues observed in the Indian education sector. Potential use cases include augmenting and enhancing the learning experience through personalised learning, automating and expediting administrative tasks, and predicting the need for student intervention to reduce dropouts or recommend vocational training.

i) Gaming

AI has a crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where the machine can think of a large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.

Self Driving Cars
Self Driving Car – Application of Artificial Intelligence

Risks Involved in Artificial Intelligence:

  • Foremost fear created by AI is the threat to human labour. AI machines taking over employment in manufacturing and service sector, may lead to massive unemployment. But these fears are not upheld by many technocrats who claim the phase of unemployment to be transient. Human resource development and demand based reskilling will create more jobs in future than those taken away.
  • Threat to Human Existence, Physicist Stephen Hawking, Microsoft founder Bill Gates, and SpaceX founder Elon Musk have expressed concerns about the possibility that AI could evolve to the point that humans could not control it, with Hawking theorizing that this could spell the end of the human race”.
  • Technological Singularity : It is the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence (ASI) will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization
  • Fears of AI Weapons, AI controlled army, Lethal autonomous weapons (LAWs) going out of human control and attaining super-intelligence.
  • AIs find it difficult to understand human ethical values and may take decisions against human nature in scenarios of ethical dilemma.

For instance, consider the car crash scene from the movie I-Robot, where the Robot rescues Will Smith from a car crash, using a cold logic (that his survival was statistically more likely), leaving a 12-year-old girl to drown. (Click Here to see that scene)

  • AI has not been used to get rid of poverty, to have more equitable distribution of wealth, or to make people more content with what they have. The types of AI we have, including war machines, will primarily be dictated by profit for the companies that make them.
  • AI technologies falling into terrorist hands may unleash modern terror network including machine and therefore vulnerability of humans may magnify.
  • It may lead to moral degradation in society due to decreased human to human interactions.

From paper to telegraph, from steam engines to computers, human beings have always feared new technology. Yet from history it is clear that we have embraced the technology with time and the technology has made our life simpler and easier. There’s no reason to believe that our future with AI will be any different. The relationship between automation and employment is complicated. While automation eliminates old jobs, it also creates new jobs through micro and macro-economic effects. Nevertheless, AI will open up new yet unknown arenas of employments.
Hence, rather than speculating fear and spreading scepticism we must plan for adaptation and reskilling of human capital to face the multidimensional AI.

Darwin says, the fittest will survive!

Further Read:
What is Artificial Intelligence?