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Panel to oversee progress in UN’s SDG


  • The Centre will soon set up a high-level committee headed by Chief Statistician of India to oversee the country’s progress towards UN’s Sustainable Development Goals aimed at ending poverty, fighting inequalities and tackling climate change.
  • A dashboard is also being developed with technical support from the UN Development Programme (UNDP) to “strengthen the mechanism” for monitoring progress on these global goals.
  • Data collected by private agencies may be considered for monitoring the SDGs, particularly since a number of the goals are not directly linked to the Centre’s provision of public services.
  • The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has already developed a list of draft national indicators to measure progress of SDGs.
  • These draft indicators have been put out in public domain. Based on the inputs received, national-level indicators will be finalised.
  • India will hold bi-annual reviews with the State governments for identifying good practices and challenges.
  • There is an emphasis on assessing and improving the availability of data and putting in place a transparent monitoring system

About SDG’s:-

  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), officially known as Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is a set of 17 “Global Goals” with 169 targets between them.
  • Spearheaded by the United Nations through a deliberative process involving its 193 Member States, as well as global civil society the Resolution is a broader intergovernmental agreement that acts as the Post 2015 Development Agenda (successor to the Millennium Development Goals).
  • The SDGs build on the Principles agreed upon under Resolution A/RES/66/288, popularly known as the Future We Want it is a non-binding document released as a result of Rio+20 Conference held in 2012 in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.
  • These SDGs included ending poverty and hunger, improving health and education, making cities more sustainable, combating climate change, and protecting oceans.

Proposed 17 goals are:-

1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
2) End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable     agriculture.
3) Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages.
4) Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
5) Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
6) Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.
7) Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.
8) Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all.
9) Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation, and foster innovation.
10) Reduce inequality within and among countries.
11) Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
12) Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
13) Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts (taking note of agreements made by the UNFCCC forum).
14) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
15) Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss.
16) Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
17) Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development.

GST Council clears rules, states agree to July 1 rollout


  • The GST Council has cleared the pending rules, including transition provisions and returns; with all the states agreeing to 1 July roll out of the Goods and Services Tax.


  • The GST Council had last month fitted over 1,200 goods and 500 services in the tax brackets of 5, 12, 18 and 28%.
  • Finance minister Arun Jaitley chaired the 15th meeting of the GST Council which is scheduled to decide on tax rate of 6 items including gold, textiles and footwear.
  • As for the transition rules approved by Council, the industry had been demanding some relaxation of the provision of deemed credit.
  • The draft transition law provided that once GST is implemented a company can claim credit of up to 40% of their Central GST dues for excise duty paid on stock held by businesses prior to the rollout.

Scope for more rationalisation:-

  • It’s been nearly two weeks of confusion since GST rates were announced for close to 2,000 goods and services. While it is clear that essentials are either in the nil or 5-per cent category, there are some inconsistencies and there is a scope for rationalisation of tax rates on various goods and services.
  • The GST Council could take into account specific objections such as the need to review the rates on food grain, puffed and flattened rice, and the rates applicable in the electricity, hospitality and entertainment sector.
  • By placing insulation cables and wires in the 28-per cent category (‘luxury’ and ‘demerit’ goods), the price of power could see a spike. Since electricity, like alcohol and petroleum, is out of GST, power companies cannot claim input tax credit.
  • Higher rates on pharma items such as rabies vaccine could lead to victims avoiding such treatment. Generally speaking, higher rates in the case of B2C items could have inflationary and welfare impacts from the stated GST goal of making tax compliance easier.
  • The GST Council has taken the easy route of fixing most rates at close to the current central excise plus VAT rate in the case of goods.
  • Seamless implementation of input tax credit — thanks to the Centre and States dipping into the same basket of goods and services for their revenues, thereby reducing leakages — should have led to lower rates.
  • The Council seems to have been guided by a motive of short-term revenue maximisation, rather than easing the burden on business and raising tax revenues by boosting economic activity. The Council should work towards reducing the number of rates and tax incidence.

Daily Current Affairs – 01/07/2017

National News:-

1) GST comes into force after 17 years of debate:-

  • The Goods and Services Tax (GST), India’s biggest tax reform since independence came into force on July 1 after 17 tumultuous years of debate,
  • The new tax regime was ushered in at a late night event in the historic Central Hall of Parliament.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi termed the new levy as “good and simple tax” that marks economic integration of India.
  • India is 161st country to launch GST.

2) Govt. unveils new hydrocarbon policy:-

  • In what could mark a paradigm shift in the country’s hydrocarbon exploration policy, the government has launched the National Data Repository (NDR) along with the Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP).

Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP):-

  • The OALP, a part of the government’s Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP), gives exploration companies the option to select the exploration blocks on their own, without having to wait for the formal bid round from the Government. The company then submits an application to the government, which puts that block up for bid.
  • The new policy will open up 2.8 million square kilometres of sedimentary basins for exploration and eventual production.

Hydrocarbon Exploration & Licensing Policy (HELP):-

  • The Hydrocarbon Exploration & Licensing Policy (HELP) opens up India’ entire sedimentary basin for investment from domestic and foreign players under a simplified, transparent and investor -friendly fiscal and administrative regime.
  • The new policy aims to provide Investors a ready access to huge amount of seismic data available in National Data Repository (NDR), flexibility to carve out exploration acreages through an open acreage licensing process and increased operational autonomy through a new revenue sharing model.
  • The National Data Repository (NDR) manifested through an open acreage licensing (OAL) process will be a key facilitator by providing seamless access to India’s entire E&P data process through a digital medium to all investors with the objective of harnessing the potential of India’s large basinal area.

3) PM Modi inaugurates filling of Aji Dam at Rajkot by Narmada water:-

  • The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi has inaugurated the filling of Aji Dam near Rajkot under Sauni Yojana.
  • He launched two water supply projects worth 552 crore rupees at Modasa town in Aravalli district of Gujarat.
  • These water supply projects will benefit more than 8 lakhs residents of the hilly district.

4) SIERRA ODC building in Coimbatore gets world’s second highest green rating:-

  • SIERRA ODC building has been recognised as the world’s second highest ranking Green Building, with a score of 103 out of 110 under LEED certification.
  • The three-storeyed building has been designed and constructed with an emphasis on increasing the efficiency of resource use while reducing its impact on human health and the environment.

5) TransStadia officially launched by PM Modi:-

  • Indian Prime Narendra Modi formally inaugurated TransStadia in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
  • The multi-purpose sports complex also hosts a 20000 seater state-of-the-art football stadium, the first of its kind in the state.
  • The facility’s formal inauguration comes nearly eight months after it first hosted a global sports event.
  • The Arena by TransStadia is a Rs. 550 crore project, built on a unique Public Private Partnership (PPP) model, and is hailed as India’s first convertible stadium.

6) Prime Minister inaugurates Textiles India 2017:-

  • The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated Textiles India 2017, India’s first ever mega textiles trade fair, being held at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
  • Addressing the gathering at Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar, the PM said that based on Make in India, the textile industry is being infused with the mantras of ‘skill,scale,speed’ & ‘zero-defect, zero-effect’.
  • The PM had earlier inaugurated the Textiles India exhibition, organized at Helipad Ground, Gandhinagar.

International News:-

1) PLA constructing road in disputed territory at tri-junction, says Bhutan:-

  • Refuting the Chinese contention that it was constructing a road at the India-China-Bhutan tri-junction in an “indisputable” part of its territory, Bhutan has said it has conveyed to the Chinese government that this is not the case.
  • In an indication that the trigger for the current standoff between India and China at Sikkim – which has led to Beijing closing the Nathu La route for Mansarovar yatris – possibly arose from Bhutan’s concerns.
  • China warned India that future visits of its pilgrims to Kailash Mansarovar through the Nathu La pass will depend on whether it will “correct its errors.”
  • Beijing also termed the construction of a road in the Sikkim sector of the Sino-India border as “legitimate”, asserting that it was being built on Chinese territory that neither belongs to India nor Bhutan and no other country had the right to interfere.
  • According to reliable sources, Indian Army troops objected to the Chinese soldiers carrying out construction on a road stretch through the disputed Dolam Plateau (Donglang or Doklam), triggering the confrontation.
  • In response, Chinese authorities denied entry to pilgrims for Kailash Mansarovar Yatra via the Nathua La pass.

2) NATO says non-US 2017 defence spending to rise 4.3%:-

  • European NATO allies and Canada will increase defence spending this year by 4.3 per cent, alliance chief, amid pressure from President Donald Trump to spend more.
  • Trump has repeatedly berated the allies for not doing more to share the defence burden and bluntly told them again at a leaders’ summit in Brussels in May 2017 that they could not count on Washington coming to their defence if they did not do their bit.
  • The 28 allies had pledged at a 2014 summit in Wales to increase defence spending to the equivalent of two per cent of annual economic output within a decade.
  • That move, pushed by then president Barack Obama in response to the Ukraine crisis and a more aggressive Russia, had halted and reversed years of defence cuts.
  • So far only five allies have met that benchmark – the US, Greece, Britain, Estonia and Poland.
  • The United States accounts for about 70 per cent of combined NATO defence spending and Washington has pushed the allies for years to do more to ease the burden.

Economic News:-

1) Interest rates on small savings, PPF to be lowered by 0.1 per cent:-

  • The government has announced to reduce the interest rate on small saving schemes like PPF, Kisan Vikas Patra and Sukanya Samriddhi by 0.1 per cent for the July-September quarter,.
  • However, the interest on saving deposits has not been changed and it remains at 4 per cent annually.
  • Investments in the public provident fund (PPF) scheme will fetch lower annual rate of 7.8 per cent.
  • The Kisan Vikas Patra (KVP) investments will yield 7.5 per cent and mature in 115 months.
  • The one for girl child savings, Sukanya Samriddhi Account Scheme, will offer 8.3 per cent annually.
  • The investment on 5-year Senior Citizens Savings Scheme will yield 8.3 per cent. Interest rate on the senior citizens scheme is paid quarterly.


1) R K Pachnanda takes charge as Director General, ITBP:-

  • R K Pachnanda, IPS takes charge as the new Director General of Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP).
  • Shri Krishna Chaudhary, DG who retired on superannuation, handed over the customary baton to Shri Pachnanda.
  • Shri Pachnanda is the 29th Chief of the ITBP.

2) Narendra Kumar Sinha assumes charge as Secretary I&B:-

  • Shri Narendra Kumar Sinha, IAS (Bihar: 1980) assumed charge as Secretary in the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting on transfer of Shri Ajay Mittal, IAS.
  • Prior to his appointment, Shri Sinha was Secretary, Ministry of Culture, Government of India.

3) KK Venugopal is the new Attorney General for India:-

  • Senior Advocate and Constitution Law Expert KK Venugopal has been appointed the 15th Attorney General for India.
  • Venugopal succeeds Mukul Rohatgi, who stepped down after his first term ended on June 11.

4) Vijay Keshav Gokhale appointed economic relations secretary in MEA:-

  • Senior diplomat Vijay Keshav Gokhale was appointed as the economic relations secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA).
  • Gokhale, a 1981-batch officer of Indian Foreign Service (IFS), is at present India’s envoy to China.
  • He was the High Commissioner of India to Malaysia from January 2010 to October 2013.


1) Health Ministry’s mobile app eVIN wins GSMA Asia Mobile Award:-

Indigenously developed mobile application for digitising vaccine logistics, eVIN, has won the prestigious GSMA Asia Mobile Award 2017 (AMO) for outstanding contribution to the UN’s sustainable development goals in Asia.
The Electronic Vaccine Intelligence Network (eVIN) is an online real-time vaccine logistics management system developed and implemented by the Ministry of Health and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
eVIN is presently being implemented across 12 states in the country and aims to support the government’s Universal Immunization Programme.

Daily Current Affairs – 30/06/2017

International News:-

1) China Is Building The World’s 1st Vertical ‘Forest City’:-

China is building a forest city covered in tree to act like one giant air filter.
The complex will span about a kilometre along the Liujiang River, with office buildings, apartments, schools, and hotels, all engulfed by around 40,000 trees and more than a million plants.
The aim is to have the green towers soak up the air pollution in the area and produce clean oxygen, encouraging the growth of other local flora in the process.

2) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to Implement Energy Efficiency Programmes:-

Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), under the administration of Ministry of Power, has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with National Energy Services Company, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to implement energy efficiency programmes and scale-up demand side measures in the Gulf country.
As per the MoU, EESL will provide consultancy and expand the capacity of the National Energy Services Company, which is instituted by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to execute energy efficiency programmes.
The move comes in the wake of the Arab Kingdom working ardently towards reducing its power subsidies and introducing energy efficiency initiatives.

National News:-

1) Dr Jitendra Singh launches new training programme ‘COMMIT’:-

The Minister of State for Development of North Eastern Region (I/C), Prime Minister’s Office, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr. Jitendra Singh launched a new training programme Comprehensive Online Modified Modules on Induction Training (COMMIT) for State Government officials.
The objective of this training programme is to improve the public service delivery mechanism and provide citizen centric administration through capacity building of officials who interact with the citizens on day-to-day basis.
Dr. Jitendra Singh said that the new training programme will supplement the earlier training programme and the advantage of COMMIT is that it is cost effective and has the potential to cover about 3.3 lakh officials annually, compared to 10,000 officials under existing 12-Day Induction Training Programme (ITP).

2) National Statistics Day: 29 June:-

In recognition of the notable contributions made by Late Professor Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in the fields of statistics, statistical system and economic planning, Government of India in 2007, designated 29thJune the birth anniversary of Prof. Mahalanobis. as the “Statistics Day” in the category of Special Days to be celebrated every year at the National level.
The objective of celebration of this Day is to create public awareness about the importance of statistics in socio-economic planning and policy formulation, to acknowledge the contribution of Prof. Mahalanobis and to pay homage to him.
‘Administrative Statistics’ is this year’s theme for the Statistics Day.

3) India 1st country to give to UN Tax Fund with $100,000 contribution:-

India has contributed $100,000 to a UN fund to help developing countries actively participate in the discussion of tax issues, becoming the first country to make the contribution.
The UN Tax Trust Fund aims to support the work of the Committee of Experts on International Cooperation in Tax Matters (the UN Tax Committee).
Voluntary contributions for the fund have been called for by the UN and the committee since its establishment in 2006.

4) India’s largest container port JNPT hit by ransomware:-

The government has confirmed that one of the terminals at the Jawahar Lal Nehru Port has been impacted by the latest malware attack.
AP Moller-Maersk, one of the affected entities globally, operates the Gateway Terminals India (GTI) at JNPT, which has a capacity to handle 1.8 million standard container units.
New ransomware virus called Petya has hit 17 APM terminals, including two in Rotterdam and 15 in other parts of the world.
APM Terminals is a subsidiary of shipping giant Maersk, which has confirmed that it is suffering from a cyber attack.

5) TN to set up Rs 2350 cr solar photovoltaic power park:-

The Tamil Nadu government has proposed a series of new initiatives in various sectors, including energy and power, running into many thousands of crores of rupees.
Among the announcements made in the energy sector, the chief minister said the government will set up an Ultra Mega Solar Photovoltaic Power Park in Ramanathapuram district at an estimated cost of Rs 2350 crore.

Daily Current Affairs – 29/06/2017

National News:-

1) Communication satellite GSAT-17 launched from French Guiana:-

  • India’s latest communication satellite GSAT-17 was successfully launched by a heavy duty rocket of Arianespace from the spaceport of Kourou in French Guiana.
  • Configured around I-3K extended bus, GSAT-17 with a lift-off mass of about 3,477 kg carries payloads in Normal C- band, Extended C-band and S-band to provide various communication services.
  • It also carries equipment for meteorological data relay and satellite based search and rescue services being provided by earlier INSAT satellites.

2) Odisha to set up blood bank for cattle:-

  • Odisha is all set to become the first state in the country to have a blood bank for the cattle.
  • Vice-chancellor of the Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT) Surendra Nath Pasupalak said that the first of its kind blood bank would be established on the premises of OUAT at an estimated cost of Rs. 3.25 crore.
  • The project will have a 60:40 sharing between the Centre and the state government, the OUAT VC.

3) Dr Harsh Vardhan and Shri Dharmendra Pradhan inaugurate Swasth Saarthi Abhiyaan:-

  • Union Minister for Science and Technology and Earth Sciences and Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Dr. Harsh Vardhan and Minister of State (I/C) for Petroleum and Natural Gas, Shri Dharmendra Pradhan, together, inaugurated the Swasth Saarthi Abhiyaan (SSA).
  • The Swasth Saarthi Abhiyaan (SSA) is a two month long mega campaign focusing on providing preventive healthcare to the auto, taxi and bus drivers of the region.
  • The SSA event is a unique initiative to address the major issues being faced by public transport drivers of the region, with almost all of them being users of CNG.

4) EC partners with Facebook for voters registration:-

  • Election Commission of India (ECI) is launching a ‘Special Drive to enrol left out electors, with a special focus on first time electors from 1st July , 2017 , so as to move in the direction of Commission’s motto that ‘NO VOTER TO BE LEFT BEHIND’ .
  • In order to reach out to maximum eligible voters, the ECI is collaborating with Facebook to launch first Nationwide “Voter Registration Reminder” on 1st July ,2017 .
  • With over 180 million people in India on Face book, the ‘Register Now’ button is designed to encourage Indian citizens to register themselves with the Election Commission of India.
  • On 1st July, a notification of the “voter registration reminder” will be sent to people on Facebook in India who are eligible to vote.
  • The reminder will be sent out in 13 Indian languages – English, Hindi, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Punjabi, Bengali, Urdu, Assamese, Marathi and Oriya.
  • This is the first time Facebook’s voter registration reminder has been rolled out across India. In 2016 and 2017, Chief Electoral Officers made such efforts at state level during their respective state elections.

International News:-

1) Sharjah named World Book Capital:-

  • Sharjah has been named the ‘World Book Capital’ title for 2019 by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
  • The honour is a recognition of the emirate’s pioneering role in supporting and expanding the local and regional publishing industries.
  • The accolade is an important addition to Sharjah’s existing portfolio of milestones like, Capital of Arab Culture (1998), Capital of Islamic Culture (2014), and Capital of Arab Tourism (2015).

Economic News:-

1) Google fined record 2.42 billion euros by European Commission:-

  • The European Union has slapped a record 2.42 billion euro fine on Google for breaching the anti-trust rules with its online shopping service.
  • It gave the Mountain View, California, company 90 days to stop or face fines of up to 5 per cent of the average daily worldwide turnover of parent company Alphabet.

2) UP govt signs pact with ADB for strengthening of roads:-

  • Uttar Pradesh Government has signed an agreement with Asian Development Bank ADB for a loan of 1950 crore rupees for strengthening of roads in different district.
  • The agreement was signed at Lucknow in the presence of Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath and ADB President Takehiko Nakao.
  • As per agreement, ADB will provide the loan amount for Uttar Pradesh Main District Roads Development Project of 2782 crore rupees cost.
  • State government will spend 832 crore rupees form its own resources on the project.
    Project is scheduled to be completed by 2024 and ADB will provide the loan for the period of 25 years on the interest rate of 2 percent.

Ministry of Power

The Ministry of Power started functioning independently with effect from 2nd July, 1992. Earlier it was known as the Ministry of Energy sources. Electricity is a concurrent subject at Entry 38 in List III of the seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India. The Ministry of Power is primarily responsible for the development of electrical energy in the country. The Ministry is concerned with perspective planning, policy formulation, processing of projects for investment decision, monitoring of the implementation of power projects, training and manpower development and the administration and enactment of legislation in regard to thermal, hydro power generation, transmission and distribution. The Ministry of Power is responsible for the Administration of the Electricity Act, 2003, the Energy Conservation Act , 2001 and to undertake such amendments to these Acts, as may be necessary from time to time, in conformity with the Government’s policy objectives.

  • GENERATIONThe Overall generation (including generation from grid connected renewable sources) in the country has been increased from 1173.458 BU during 2014-15 to 1173.603 BU during the year 2015-16 and 1242.010 BU during 2016-17. The performance of Category wise generation during the year 2016-17 was follows :-
    Thermal Increased by       5.34 %
    Hydro Reduced by            0.82 %
    Nuclear Increased by       1.34 %
    Bhutan Import  Increased by       7.11 %
    Renewables Increased by   24.46 %
    Overall Growth rate recorded by  5.83 %

Electricity sector in India is growing at rapid pace. During the current year 2017-18 (Upto 31.05.2017), the Peak Demand is about 159.6 GW and the Installed Capacity is 330.3 GW with generation mix of Thermal (67.1%), Hydro (13.5%), Renewable (17.3%) and Nuclear (2.1%).
The natural resources for electricity generation in India are unevenly dispersed and concentrated in a few pockets. Hydro resources are located in the Himalayan foothills, North Eastern Region (NER).  Coal reserves are concentrated in Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh, whereas lignite is located in Tamil Nadu and Gujarat. Also lot of power station, generating from Gas and renewable energy sources like Solar, Wind etc. have been installed in various parts of country.
Powergrid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID), a Central Transmission Utilities (CTU), is responsible for planning inter-state transmission system (ISTS). Similarly there are State Transmission Utilities (STU) (namely State Transco/ SEBs) responsible for the development of Intra StateTransmission System.
An extensive network of Transmission lines has been developed over the years for evacuating power produced by different electricity generating stations and distributing the same to the consumers. Depending upon the quantum of power and the distance involved, lines of appropriate voltages are laid. The nominal Extra High Voltage lines in vogue are ± 800 kV HVDC & 765kV, 400 kV, 230/220 kV, 110 kV and 66kV AC lines. These have been installed by all the SEBs, and by Generation, Transmission & Distribution utilities including those in Central Sector.
4,027 circuit kilometers (ckm) of transmission lines have been commissioned during 2017-18 (April-May 2017). This is 17.4% of the annual target of 23,086 ckm fixed for 2017-18. Similarly, 9,170 MVA of transformation capacity of substations has been added during 2017-18 (April-May 2017) which constitutes17% of the annual target of 53,978 MVA fixed for 2017-18.
The capacity of transmission system of 220 kV and above voltage levels, in the country as on 31st May 2017 was 3,71,878 ckm of transmission lines and  7,49,935 MVA of transformation capacity of Substations.
As on 31st May 2017, the total transmission capacity of the inter-regional links is 75,050 MW.
The transmission lines are operated in accordance with Regulations/standards of Central Electricity Authority (CEA) / Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) / State Electricity Regulatory Commissions(SERC).However, in certain cases, the loading on transmission lines may have to be restricted keeping in view the voltage stability, angular stability, loop flows, load flow pattern and grid security.Power surplus States have been inter-alia, able to supply their surplus power to power deficit State Utilities across the country except for some congestion in supply of power to Southern Region.
Power System Operation Corporation Limited (POSOCO), is managing the National and Regional grid from National Load Despatch Centre (NLDC) and its five Regional Load DespatchCentres (RLDC) through state-of-the-art unified load dispatch &communication facilities.
Central Transmission Utility(CTU): Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID)
Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID, the ‘Central Transmission Utility (CTU)’ of the country and a ‘Navratna’ Company operating under Ministry of Power, is engaged in power transmission business with the responsibility for planning, implementation, operation and maintenance of Inter-State Transmission System (ISTS). POWERGRID is a listed Company, with 57.90% holding of Government of India and balance by Institutional Investors & public.
POWERGRID, as on April 30, 2017, owns & operates around 1,39,708 ckm of Extra High Voltage (EHV) transmission lines spread over the length and breadth of the country and 220 EHV AC & HVDC Sub-stations with transformation capacity of more than 2,92,543 MVA. Its vast transmission network wheels more than 45% of the power in the country. The availability of this huge transmission network is consistently maintained over 99% through deployment of state-of-the-art operation & maintenance techniques at par with global standards.
During FY 2015-16, POWERGRID has achieved a turnover of about Rs. 21,281 Crore and Net Profit of Rs.6,027 Crore. As on 31.12.2016 Gross Fixed Assets of the company have also grown to Rs.1,65,757 Crore.
High Capacity Power Transmission Corridors (HCPTCs) have been implemented to meet bulk power evacuation requirement of various Independent Power Producers (IPPs) mainly coming up in resource rich and coastal areas such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Sikkim, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Implementation of these corridors has been taken up in a phased manner matching with generation projects.
The total inter-regional transmission capacity (220kV and above) of country has been enhanced from 27,150 MW to 75,050 MW from XIth to XIIth plan. This endeavour of POWERGRID under the guidance of Ministry of Power has enabled in moderation of the prices of electricity in Northern Region and ensured reliable supply of electricity.
POWERGRID has achieved a capital investment of about Rs.1,12,600 crore for development of inter-State transmission system during XII Plan against a target of Rs.1,10,000 Crore. During the XII plan it has added about 45,900 ckm of transmission line and about 1,64,000 MVA of transformation capacity against a target of 40,000 ckm and 1,00,000 MVA respectively.
The Company has an excellent credit rating with financial institutions, thereby, is placed in a comfortable position in terms of resource mobilization. POWERGRID is also playing a major role in facilitating grid interconnection of renewable generation across the country through implementation of portion of ISTS part of Green Energy Corridors.
Conserving Right-of-Way (RoW), minimizing impact on natural resources, coordinated development of cost effective transmission corridor, flexibility in upgradation of transfer capacity of lines matching with power transfer requirement are major areas of concern in development of transmission network in the country. In this direction, the Company has been working on higher transmission voltages of ±800 kV HVDC & 1200 kV UHVAC. 1500 MW (Pole-I) of HVDC terminals at both ends of about 1350 km long ±800 kV, 6000 MW HVDC Bi-pole line connecting Champa in Chhattisgarh to Kurukshetra in Haryana has been commissioned recently. Similarly, power flow through 1200 kV National Test Station (NTS) has commenced at Bina, Madhya Pradesh.
To shore up its revenue and create value for its stakeholders, POWERGRID diversified into telecom business, leveraging its country wide transmission infrastructure. Company is providing back-bone connectivity to all metros, major cities & towns including remote areas of J&K and North-Eastern States etc. Total network coverage is more than 39,662 kms and numbers of Points of Presence (PoPs) locations are more than 662. Having Intra city network in 105 cities across India, the Telecom Backbone Availability for the year 2015-16 was about 99.5%.
POWERGRID has successfully completed the prestigious NKN (National Knowledge Network) project devised by Govt. of India, which connects all knowledge centres across the Country such as Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of Sciences (IISCs) etc., on a high speed connectivity Company has signed an agreement with Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) to improve the telecommunication connectivity with the North-Eastern States including Sikkim. It envisages the provisioning of bandwidth on optical fibre media laid over existing high tension electric transmission network. After completion of the proposed connectivity, the reliability of the telecom services improves substantially in North-Eastern region including Sikkim.
As a part of Government of India plan to connect 250,000 Gram Panchayats (GP) in the Country, POWERGRID one of the implementing agencies for BharatNet project and has been entrusted with the task of development and maintenance of the National Optical Fibre Network in states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha.
Further, POWERGRID is playing a significant role in carrying forward the distribution reforms through undertaking Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY) and Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS) works on behalf of the Govt. of India in the country.
POWERGRID has emerged as a strong player in South Asia and is playing an active role in formation of a strong SAARC grid for effective utilization of resources for mutual benefits. Presently, various electrical interconnections exist between India & Bhutan, India & Nepal and India & Bangladesh. Further, the interconnection between India & Bhutan, India & Nepal and India & Bangladesh are being strengthened for substantial exchange of power across the borders.
POWERGRID is offering consultancy services to various National clients & International clients, including many South Asian, African, and Middle East countries.
POWERGRID is implementing the prestigious and State of the Art, Renewable Energy Management Centres (REMC) for managing the renewable generation integration and operation which shall include a host of activities from renewable energy forecasting to energy balancing and generation scheduling. In Smart transmission, POWERGRID has been implementing Synchrophasor Technology in its Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) Project through installation of PMUs (Phasor Measurement Units) at different locations in all regions across the country, which facilitates better visualization and situational awareness of the grid events such as grid robustness, oscillations, angle/ voltage instability, system margin etc. as well as decision support tools. POWERGRID also acts as ‘nodal point’ in prestigious “India Smart Grid Task Force” Secretariat for Government’s activities related to Smart Grid.


Distribution is the most important link in the entire power sector value chain.  As the only interface between utilities and consumers, it is the cash register for the entire sector. Under the Indian Constitution, power is a Concurrent subject and the responsibility for distribution and supply of power to rural and urban consumers rests with the states.

Government of India provides assistance to states through various Central Sector / centrally sponsored schemes for improving the distribution sector.

Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS)

Scheme approved on 20.11.2014 with a total outlay of Rs 32,612 crore which includes a budgetary support of Rs 25,354 crore from Govt. of India. The objectives of scheme are:

  • Strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution networks in the urban areas;
  • Metering of distribution transformers / feeders / consumers in the urban area.
  • IT enablement of distribution sector and strengthening of distribution network

The component of IT enablement of distribution sector and strengthening of distribution network approved in June, 2013 in the form of RAPDRP for 12th and 13th Plans got subsumed in this scheme and approved scheme outlay of Rs 44,011 crore including a budgetary support of Rs 22,727 crore carried over to the new scheme of IPDS.

Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)

Scheme approved on 20.11.2014 with a total outlay of Rs 44,033 crore which includes a budgetary support of Rs 33,453 crore from Govt. of India. The objectives of scheme are:

  • Separation of agriculture and non-agriculture feeders
  • Strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution networks in the rural areas;
  • Metering of distribution transformers / feeders / consumers in the rural area.
  • Rural Electrification

The component of Rural Electrification approved in August, 2013 in the form of RGGVY for 12th and 13th Plans got subsumed in this scheme and approved scheme cost of Rs 39275 crore including a budgetary support of Rs 35447crore carried over to the new scheme of DDUGJY.

National Electricity Fund (NEF)

To promote investment in the distribution sector, GoI has set up National Electricity Fund (Interest Subsidy Scheme) in March 2012 to provide interest subsidy on loans disbursed to the Distribution Companies (DISCOMS) – both in public and private sector, to improve the distribution network for areas not covered by RGGVY and R-APDRP project areas. The preconditions for eligibility are linked to certain reform measures taken by the States and the amount of interest subsidy is linked to the progress achieved in reforms linked parameters.

Financial Restructuring Scheme

GoI has notified the scheme for Financial Restructuring of State Distribution Companies (Discoms) in October 2012 for achieving their financial turnaround by restructuring their short term liabilities with support through a Transitional Finance Mechanism from Central govt.


  • The pyramidal representation of tropic levels of different organisms based on their ecological position [producer to final consumer] is called as an ecological pyramid.
  • The food producer forms the base of the pyramid and the top carnivore forms the tip. Other consumer tropic levels are in between.
  • The pyramid consists of a number of horizontal bars depicting specific tropic levels. The length of each bar represents the total number of individuals or biomass or energy at each tropic level in an ecosystem.
  • The ecological pyramids are of three categories.
  1. Pyramid of numbers,
  2. Pyramid of biomass, and
  3. Pyramid of energy or productivity.




  • THE SUN provides food for GRASS
  • The GRASS is eaten by a GRASSHOPPER
  • The GRASSHOPPER is eaten by a FROG
  • The FROG is eaten by a SNAKE
  • The SNAKE is eaten by a HAWK.



  • TREES produce ACORNS which act as food for many MICE and INSECTS.
  • Because there are many MICE, WEASELS and SNAKES have food.
  • The insects and the acorns also attract BIRDS, SKUNKS, and OPOSSUMS.
  • With the SKUNKS, OPPOSUMS, WEASELS and MICE around, HAWKS, FOXES, and OWLS can find food.
  • They are all connected! Like a spiders web, if one part is removed, it can affect the whole web.

FOOD WEBS show how plants and animals are connected in many ways to help them all survive. FOOD CHAINS follow just one path of energy as animals find food.


Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals. Coral reefs are built by colonies of tiny animals found in marine water that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups.



Biomes are very large ecological areas on the earth’s surface, with fauna and flora (animals and plants) adapting to their environment. Biomes are often defined by abiotic factors such as climate, relief, geology, soils and vegetation. A biome is NOT an ecosystem, although in a way it can look like a massive ecosystem.